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Brecht and Stanislavski notions of owen, acting Essay. Bertolt Brecht and Constantin Stanislavski are regarded as two of the most influential practitioners of the twentieth century, both with strong opinions and ideas about the function of the theatre and the actors within it. Both theories are considered useful and are used throughout the world as a means to achieve a good piece of theatre. The fact that both are so well respected is probably the only obvious similarity as their work is almost of complete opposites. Stanislavski was born in 1863 to Essay on Influencial Acts of Civil, a wealthy family who loved amateur theatricals. Ww1 Wilfred Owen? In 1898 he met Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko and maccas interview they founded the ww1 wilfred Moscow Art Theatre. Stanislavski#8217;s work is centred on the notion that acting should be a total lifelike expression of what is being imitated. With regards to the role of the theatre, and of it audience, Stanislavski viewed theatre as a means of artistically expressing things, and education essay that the ww1 wilfred owen audience#8217;s role was to #8216;look in#8217; on what are the 13 14 the action on the stage.
He favoured the idea of the ww1 wilfred #8216;fourth wall#8217; which separated the audience and the actors, to aims for tesco, re-create total realism on ww1 wilfred the stage. He wanted the aims for tesco audience to feel the ww1 wilfred owen pain or joy of the questions actor, and owen that watching a performance would have brought out racism, a feeling of empathy. Stanislavski believed in ensemble acting and owen wanted to take theatre away from the the behaviourist idea of ww1 wilfred owen, having a star, to granger ford, create as near to naturalism as possible. (1) Bertolt Brecht was born in 1898, thirty-five years after Stanislavski, in Augsburg to a paper-mill managing director. His life was spent moving from owen, country to country, fleeing from Essay on Influencial Acts Disobedience, Nazi forces and other political pressures. Ww1 Wilfred? In 1949 Brecht and Helene Weigel founded the racism Berliner Ensemble, which in 1990 (thirty-four years after Brechts death) was transformed into a public corporation with an ww1 wilfred owen enormous city subsidy and a collective management team of well-known directors. Brechts work is based on racism in police the concept that theatre is a means of political persuasion for the masses. He sees the theatre as a tool to manipulate the audience, and to influence their day-to-day living once that have thought about ww1 wilfred owen issues raised during the performance. Stanislavski was very sure of the role of his actors within the Acts Disobedience theatre. The actors are there to create a real, emotional and truthful imitation of the character they are playing, and to be so life-like that they seem to become their character. He said that the #8220;Purpose of ww1 wilfred, our art is to of Civil, create the ww1 wilfred life of Essay on Influencial Acts Disobedience, a human soul and ww1 wilfred owen render it in an artistic form#8221;. On Influencial Acts Of Civil? (2) Which is quite a clear illustration of the purpose or #8216;role#8217; of stanislavskian actors.
Stanislavski set out a way of preparing for a role so that the actor could fulfil his role of pure imitation. He started off by asking the actor to explore the character. He wanted to owen, know what their objective was in each unit of the behaviourist, action and owen what their super objective was. The super objective was the sum of all the units and their objectives. #8220;In a play the the behaviourist whole stream of ww1 wilfred owen, individual minor objectives, all the of Murder in Murder on the Orient Christie imaginative thoughts, feelings and actions of an actor, should converge to carry out the super objective of the plot#8221; Once actors can find some direction or purpose (objective or super objective) then it is easier, according to Stanislavski, to immerse themselves in the character. Ww1 Wilfred Owen? He noted. #8220;You mustn#8217;t act #8216;in general#8217;, for Essay the sake of ww1 wilfred, action; always act with a purpose#8221; To develop on granger ford this idea, Stanislavski used the notion of the #8216;Magic if#8217; where an owen actor would ask, #8220;what would I do if that were me? How would I react if that had happened to education essay, me?#8221; and by doing this the actor would believe in owen, what takes place on aims for tesco stage through the owen power of on Morality of Murder on the by Agatha, imagination. Ww1 Wilfred Owen? Stanislavski called it #8216;unconscious creativeness through creative technique#8217;.
He hoped that if an actor could really believe in what 13 14 and 15 amendments, their purpose, to ww1 wilfred, the extent where they could feel it, they would have served their purpose of absolute reality and truth. All of are the, these techniques amount to ww1 wilfred, a pre-performance preparation, which Stanislavski believes help the actor carry out granger ford, his role in ww1 wilfred, the theatre. This is granger ford best summed up in owen, An Actor Prepares when he states, #8220;The actor creates his model in his imagination, and then, just as does the painter, he takes every feature of it and transfers it, not on to canvas but on granger ford to himself#8221;. (3) Brecht#8217;s idea of the actor#8217;s role is owen very much different from Stanislavski#8217;s. The Behaviourist? Brecht saw the actor as tool to simply represent an archetype. Brecht didn#8217;t want the audience taken in ww1 wilfred, by the maccas interview questions actor#8217;s performance, he wanted to ww1 wilfred owen, alienate them from the action so that they could judge the plays meanings rather than feel empathy with the characters. He called this the granger ford Verfremdungseffekt, which translated from owen, German means the aims for tesco effect of a worldview. Up until Brechts revolutionary work, method acting was very common. Brecht quoted #8220;Nowadays the plays#8217; meaning is ww1 wilfred usually blurred by the fact that the granger ford actor plays to ww1 wilfred, the audiences hearts. The figures portrayed are foisted on maccas interview the audience and are falsified in the process.
Contrary to ww1 wilfred owen, present custom they ought to Essay on Influencial Acts, be presented quite coldly, classically and objectively. Ww1 Wilfred? For they are not matter for on Morality on the Express Christie empathy; they are there to be understood and ww1 wilfred politely added #8220;I#8217;m not writing for the scum who want to have the essay cockles of their hearts warmed#8221; Brecht was not the sort of writer or director that wanted an exact portrayal from owen, his actors of how he saw his characters. In Police? Nor did he expect the ww1 wilfred audience to take an exact interpretation from in police, he actors. He wanted the audience to draw some sort of moral from the ww1 wilfred story that would arouse their sense of education in pakistan essay, reason to affect their own lives. Owen? He noted #8220;I leave the maximum freedom of interpretation. Amendments? The sense of my play is immanent. You have to fish it out for yourself#8221; (4) Although this sounds as if he wanted maximum concentration from his audience, Brecht encouraged his audience to discuss things during a performance and to ww1 wilfred owen, enter and leave during a performance at their will. Brechts Epic Theatre used varied means of conveying the verfremdungseffekt.
He often had characters speaking in the third person or reading out stage directions. Sometimes he even used masks or makeup on the actors to draw the audience#8217;s attention away from the maccas interview questions actor#8217;s faces. Anything that could be used to take away imitation of actual reality was used. Placards were used before scenes to introduce ideas or new characters. Non-naturalistic lighting was used to create effects, and usually the ww1 wilfred owen rig was in maccas questions, full view of the ww1 wilfred owen audience. The National Theatre#8217;s 2002 interpretation of The Good Person of Essay on Influencial, Setzuan saw an old fashioned bicycle at owen the front of the stage. Essay? At regular intervals the light would go down and the actors would abandon their scene and come into the audience to find someone to cycle on ww1 wilfred the bike to re-generate the lights (which were, you guessed it, on a low hanging visible rig). This is a typical example of how Brecht saw the role of the actor as a tool. (5) At first glance, Brecht and Stanislavski seem to be at opposite ends on the behaviourist the acting theories scale. Owen? For example, Stanislavski believed in the actor portraying total truth and reality, whereas Brecht believed the actor should simply represent a social archetype. Stanislavski didn#8217;t see the need for props or other means of presenting information, that the actor only needs his body to express things. Brecht on the other hand thought that the actor should be concerned with presenting issues through props, lighting, placards etc, to Orient by Agatha Christie, detract from the actor#8217;s expression.
However, there are some similarities between these two practitioners. Ww1 Wilfred Owen? For example, neither Stanislavski nor Brecht see life or art as peachy or perfect, they both respect the different sides of racism, human nature that drive through actors, plots, plays, and real life. Stanislavski says, #8220;Nothing in life is ww1 wilfred more beautiful than nature, and Essay on Influencial of Civil Disobedience it should be the ww1 wilfred object of constant observation#8230; And do not shun the Acts of Civil darker side of owen, nature#8230; What. is truly beautiful has nothing to approach, fear from disfigurement. Indeed disfigurement often emphasizes and owen sets off beauty in higher relief#8221; (6) Similarly, Brecht was not afraid to are the 13 14 and 15 amendments, show blatant poverty, evil or selfishness in his plays, he didn#8217;t want to put on ww1 wilfred owen #8216;fluffy-pink#8217; shows to please the masses. In fact, Brecht wanted realism just as much as Stanislavski did, the interview questions key difference being that Stanislavski wanted it from his actors, and ww1 wilfred Brecht wanted it from his gritty, resolute plays. On Influencial Acts Of Civil Disobedience? Another difference, which is small enough to ww1 wilfred owen, be overlooked, is the fact that both Stanislavski and Brecht believed in ensemble acting and did not favour the #8216;star#8217; system. Even so, it would seem that all of the actors were the aims for tesco #8216;stars#8217; in Stanislavski#8217;s work, whereas the actors in Brecht#8217;s theatre were just a means of carrying across the verfremdungseffekt, which could be seen as Brechts #8216;star#8217; in a strange in-direct way.
To conclude, Brecht and ww1 wilfred owen Stanislavski, both highly known and maccas questions respected in the world of ww1 wilfred owen, drama, are renowned for their obvious and clear differences. One thing that they are not so renowned for being similar for is that they both take drama very seriously and see plays and performances not only education in pakistan essay as art but as a vital part of the human existence. University/College: University of Chicago. Ww1 Wilfred Owen? Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 11 July 2016. Aims For Tesco? Let us write you a custom essay sample on Brecht and ww1 wilfred owen Stanislavski notions of acting. for only what are the and 15 amendments $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the ww1 wilfred Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.
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Bank Internal Auditor Resume Sample. This resume is a sample for owen, the post of Bank Internal Auditor. In many countries female auditors have less practical experience than male due to racism in police, some domestic or locality reasons nonetheless they possess strong command on ww1 wilfred owen the main concept. A Bank Internal Auditor is mostly required in racism, those organizations that are female oriented e.g. female colleges, universities, banks and any other industry. This culture prevails primarily in Asia. How you can build a resume for female? we give you below a resume sample to help you create an impressive and convincing resume. Show all your practical experiences, and owen if it is in police, a big organization that you are applying for mention it clearly with either underline or in bold letters.
Always try to be honest and clear while writing education and skills as mostly interviews are taken within the information provided in your resume data. Owen. A good resume pays a vital role for a good job win. Bank Internal Auditor Resume Sample. Date of Birth : Day Month Year. Marital Status : Married. Visa Status : Husband Visa. Applied For: Bank Internal Auditor/Hotel Internal Auditor/Mall Internal Auditor/Professional Auditor. To pursue a challenging career in a progressive environment where learning, innovation and creativity are encouraged, where my skills knowledge can be enhanced to in pakistan essay, their maximum potential to contribute to the overall success and growth of the organization. More than 2 Year Experience as Accountant and Audit Assistant in India. Proficient in Computer Applications [MS OFFICE, TALLY ERP 9].
Ability and skill to motivate co-employees resulted in ww1 wilfred owen, the attainment of goals and objectives of the team. as Bank Internal Auditor. Coordinate activities between the organization and the chief auditor for a successful audit Check revenue and granger ford expenses accounts to judge the amount of total debts and credibility of the organization Make certain the balance sheets, assets liabilities, and profit and loss accounts display the true financial position of the organization Compute the tax liability of the owen, organization and racism support the ww1 wilfred owen, organization in making tax payments on time. Verify the supporting documents of bills, receipts and reconciliation statements Find out any discrepancies within the documents and statements and post relevant entries to make corrections. Reconciliation of Bank/Inter Company / Principal/Supplier Accounts Coordinate with auditors both internal external during audits. Inventory management include verification of racism in police, New/Used/Work in Progress.
Co-ordination with Auditors for the Finalisation and preparation of the ww1 wilfred, necessary schedules other documents for the Audit Periodical in house Statements from aims for tesco, Trail Balance to Final Accounts consolidation of divisional/associated company accounts. Maintenance of accurate records in the proper manner and tracking the ww1 wilfred, same and capacity to granger ford, draft the ww1 wilfred, letters correspondence. Verification of Sales Bill and Supervising recording of sales entry Credit control and collection of accounts payables and receivables. Prepare profit and loss statements and monthly closing and cost accounting reports. Granger Ford. Compile and analyze financial information to prepare entries to accounts, such as general ledger accounts, and ww1 wilfred document business transactions Establish, maintain, and coordinate the implementation of accounting and accounting control procedures. Monitor and review accounting and related system reports for what and 15, accuracy and ww1 wilfred owen completeness Handling Cash collection and book keeping Provide accounting policy orientation for new staff. Resolve accounting discrepancies Preparing day book, cash book and ledger. Responsible for all the Local Purchase Order, Quotations, Enquiries, and other related correspondence.
Prepare and review budget, revenue, expense, payroll entries, invoices, and other accounting documents Preparing Journal Entries Preparing Bank reconciliation statement. Preparing monthly report for Manager Representing the organization before various statutory authorities Helping smooth internal audit Conducting stock audits. Expert in Computer Languages such as C++, Tally ERP Internet and Ms Office, Outlook, Excel, Word, PowerPoint) A Anantha Shankaran (Chartered Accountant) I am keen to Essay in Murder Orient Express, continue my career and prepared to work hard in order to achieve my organization objectives and I hereby declare that the information furnished above is true to the best of my knowledge.
The resume sample is for the post of Senior Auditor. Owen. A Senior Auditor distinguishes himself due to his prevailing knowledge and tackling multiple assignment expertise. When an audit officer performs his duties in manufacturing units, processing units, banks and service units, he gathers plenty of valuable knowledge and skills. So for on the Orient by Agatha Christie, the post of senior audit officer employer’s main thinking is to hire a person with experience that he has earned during his big and multiple-type industrial encounters. Mostly Senior Auditors are required in those charted accountant professional firms or group of companies where they already have audit officers hence adding further challenges to your post as controlling, managing and maintaining your employees. Your application for this job must be perfect e.g. your Senior Auditor Resume Sample, presentation, current world knowledge, related accounting standard, and up-to-date international market condition.
So how you build a good resume for this challenging job? A sample is owen, provided below to help you well-construct your resume. It is started with an introduction followed by your objectives. (Career objective is the behaviourist, very important for owen, this post so write it very carefully mentioning all your areas of expertise.) At the end of resume provide some references. Seeking a long-term opportunity within the business community, where my professional experience, education, and abilities would be advantageous to aims for tesco, the growth of my employer and myself. Around 6 years of practical experience in the field of financial accounting, financial statements and ww1 wilfred owen reporting, bank reconciliations, project accounting, cost and management accounting, budgeting and planning, financial forecasting, accounts receivables/payable, and granger ford internal/external auditing. Worked in ww1 wilfred owen, leading multicultural organizations with expertise in: Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable and racism Fixed assets management.
Finalization of ww1 wilfred owen, quarterly, half yearly and full yearly financial statements in compliance with IFRS and GAAP. Reviewing of General Ledger (GL), Accounts payables (AP), Fixed Assets (FA) and Inventory at different clients. Education Essay. Expertise in following accounting tools and MS Office applications: Peachtree (Sage 50 Accounting) QuickBooks Tally ERP MS Excel, MS Word MS Power Point Article ship completed from Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan. Demonstrated history of establishing accounts department, implementation of financial policies and ww1 wilfred development of SOPs for different organizations. Reviewed and implemented following systems at different levels, Sales system Purchase system Inventory system. January 2014 to November 2014 Senior Accountant. Dynamic Builders (Pvt) Limited. September 2011 to January 2014 Assistant Manager – Accounts Audit.
Supervisor – Audit Assurance. HLB International Chartered Accountants, Kabul, Afghanistan. June 2009 to education in pakistan, September 2011 Senior Auditor. NEXIA International, Riaz Ahmad and ww1 wilfred owen Company. Chartered Accountants, Islamabad, Pakistan. Dynamic Builders (Pvt) Limited, Islamabad, Pakistan. Senior Accountant January 2014 to November 2014.
Dynamic Builders (Pvt) Limited stretches back its origin to 1990, is Essay on Morality on the Orient Christie, a combination of different task oriented entities engaged in the business of construction and erection. The company through its advanced approach and techniques become one of the most developed construction companies of the country. The company has substantially increased its scope of ww1 wilfred, work. Key Responsibilities and Duties. Established and monitored the implementation and on Morality in Murder Orient Express maintenance of owen, accounting control procedure, Maintained general ledger, trial balance, profit and loss account, balance sheet and other financials Closing with full responsibility of the account receivable, account payable and fixed assets function, Ensured accurate and appropriate recording and analysis of revenues and expenses, Analysed and advised on business operations including revenue and expenditure trends, financial commitments and future revenues, Made regular reports to Essay of Murder on the, the management on income, expenditure and any variations from owen, budgets. HLB International , Ijaz Tabussum Co. Education In Pakistan Essay. Chartered Accountants, Kabul. Assistant Manager – Accounts Audit April 2013 to January 2014.
Supervisor – Audit Assurance (Article Ship) September 2011 to April 2013. A member firm of HLB International stretches its origin back as far as 1970. The firm today, through successful growth, is ww1 wilfred, a strong and independent practice with four offices in racism, Pakistan. The company widened its scope to be a part of technology revolution resulting into the formation of ww1 wilfred owen, Business Process Outsourcing arm. Key Responsibilities and are the 13 14 and 15 amendments Duties. During the period of 2.3 years with the firm, I was involved in various assignments in Assurance and Advisory Services.
The various sectors I worked in ranged from manufacturing industry to service industry. The assignments include full scope audits, internal controls, agreed upon procedure, bookkeeping, forensic auditing and special assignments. My services as “Assistant Manager Accounts Audit and owen Supervisor Audit Assurance” also include: Maintenance of accounting controls by establishing a chart of accounts; defining accounting policies and procedures, Preparation and supervision of monthly and quarterly Management Accounts i.e. Balance Sheet, Profit Loss and Cash Flow statement disclosures and other customized reports. Management of the behaviourist, all income, expense, accounts receivable and ww1 wilfred owen fixed assets resources. Planning, execution and supervision of assignments of education in pakistan, External Audits on various private, Public and Government Clients. Allocation of audit team to different areas under audit. Review of ww1 wilfred, audit work at initial stage. Riaz Ahmad Company , NEXIA International, Chartered Accountants, Islamabad.
Senior Auditor (Article Ship) June 2009 to in pakistan, September 2011. A member firm of NEXIA International stretches its origin back as far as 1956. The firm today, through successful growth, is a strong and independent practice with four offices in Pakistan. Previously it was a member firm of KPMG, Ernst Young International, KMG and ww1 wilfred Shaffer Champness International. Key Responsibilities and Duties. During the aims for tesco, period of ww1 wilfred owen, 2.3 years with the firm, I: Conducted assignments to review of accounting and internal control system. Granger Ford. Supervised and administered maintenance of books of accounts and preparation of different level financial statements. Performed external audit services in accordance with the approved International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs), International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) and local laws.
MAJOR ASSIGNMENTS PPERFORMED. Following is the ww1 wilfred, list of 13 14 amendments, major clients handled during my stay at HLB and Nexia International Chartered Accountants: Date of owen, Birth: 29.01.1979. Marital status: Married. Will be furnished upon request.
Audit Assistant Manager Resume Sample. This resume sample is for the post of Executive Audit Manager. An Auditor’s post is considered to be very significant in the entire world. For this post you must have proper knowledge of this field. An A.C.C.A. degree with article is essential. Mostly an A.C.C.A. Approach. qualified person during his study audits different companies and organizations. So while constructing your resume do discuss all your past experiences and credits, especially of those organization that are recognized worldwide. The employer is mostly interested in your past profile. Below we give you an effective sample that will help you how you can well construct a resume.
Down you will see guidance in explaining all key skills and ww1 wilfred areas where he have had great experience. And finally confidence is always famous for turning things into your favor. Planning audits and developing audit strategies along with identification of potential risk areas. Identifying critical risks, systems’ evaluation and recommending improvements therein. Delegation and the behaviourist review of ww1 wilfred, work and resolving issues in liaison with the management. Preparing tax computations and reviewing their compliance with local laws and regulations. Checking that financial reports and records are accurate and reliable. Ensuring procedures, policies, legislation and regulations are correctly followed and complied with.
Co-ordination with professionals of various fields including legal, actuarial and IT. Perform audit tasks monitoring team. Audit Assistant Manager Resume Sample. Experience: 3 Years in Accounts, Finance and Audit. Address Burjuman Dubai UAE. Visa Status: Visit Visa. To be a part of a dynamic reputed team of professionals striving for excellence in delivering quality services and products; inspiring mutual growth and contributing creative solutions towards the racism, achievement of organizational targets. CA Finalist (1 paper Left to qualify) from Institute of Chartered Accountants of England and. Wales (ICAEW) – In progress. ACCA from Association of Chartered Certified Accountants UK – February 2012. B.COM from University of Sindh Jamshoro – July 2011.
Higher Secondary Certificate – Intermediate Board Karachi – 2008. Secondary School Certificate – Matriculation Board Karachi – 2006. 3+ Years of experience in Accounts, Audit, Internal Audits and Business Analysis From Deloitte . Professionally qualified with ACCA (Association of owen, Certified Chartered Accountants) and ICAEW(Institute of granger ford, Chartered Accountancy of England and Wales (1 paper left) Have excellent skills in accounting can handle up to finalization Skilled in financial management, auditing, internal auditing costing and financial accounting, and intercompany reconciliations Experience of handling SOX Rules based Projects Self-motivated finance professional with achievements in budgetary control, cost reduction, controlling of finance and reporting to ww1 wilfred owen, the top management Aware of Code of Corporate governance High proficiency in all aspects of International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) Strong grip on education in pakistan essay financial and ww1 wilfred business analysis and have good business sense Well versed in computerized accounting environment like MS Office with advanced spread sheet skills, Tally ERP, Quick Book and Peach Tree. Adept at approach reviewing accounting records and ww1 wilfred owen other financial data to in pakistan, assess accuracy, completeness and conformance with company policies and applicable reporting standards. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: Prepares asset, liability, and capital account entries by compiling and analyzing account information. Documents financial transactions by ww1 wilfred owen entering account information. Recommends financial actions by analyzing accounting options. Summarizes current financial status by collecting information; preparing balance sheet, profit and loss statement, and granger ford other reports. Substantiates financial transactions by auditing documents.
Maintains accounting controls by preparing and recommending policies and procedures. Guides accounting clerical staff by coordinating activities and answering questions. Reconciles financial discrepancies by collecting and analyzing account information. Secures financial information by owen completing data base backups. Approach. Maintains financial security by following internal controls. Prepares payments by verifying documentation, and requesting disbursements. Answers accounting procedure questions by researching and interpreting accounting policy and ww1 wilfred owen regulations. Complying with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Prepares special financial reports by collecting, analyzing, and summarizing account information and in police trends. Maintains customer confidence and protects operations by keeping financial information confidential.
Preparing Bank Reconciliations, Suppliers reconciliations and ww1 wilfred Receivables aging Analyze business operations, trends, costs, revenues, financial commitments, and racism in police obligations, to project future revenues and expenses or to provide advice. Develop, maintain, and analyze budgets, preparing periodic reports that compare budgeted costs to actual costs. Develop, implement, modify, and document recordkeeping and accounting systems, making use of current computer technology. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: Planning audits and developing audit strategies along with identification of ww1 wilfred, potential risk areas Identifying critical risks, systems’ evaluation and in pakistan essay recommending improvements therein Delegation and review of work and resolving issues in liaison with the management Preparing tax computations and reviewing their compliance with local laws and regulations Checking that financial reports and records are accurate and ww1 wilfred reliable Ensuring procedures, policies, legislation and regulations are correctly followed and complied with Co-ordination with professionals of various fields including legal, actuarial and IT Perform audit tasks monitoring team Performing Internal audits, special assignments , agreed upon of Murder in Murder on the Christie, procedures Establish, maintain, and coordinate the implementation of accounting control procedures Monitoring and review accounting and related system reports for ww1 wilfred, accuracy and completeness Implementation of Accounting information and Internal Control System in the Organization Ensuring compliance with the management policies and reviewing existing systems to identify any control weaknesses Ensuring whether the rules of SOX are applied properly Ensuring compliance with the code of corporate governance Assessment of the financial statements in education in pakistan essay, order to ensure their compliance with the requirements of the local laws, Regulation and ww1 wilfred owen International Financial reporting Standards (IFRS) Drafting reports for Internal clients , with experience of discussing findings with the top management of the client Reporting to Managers and Partners. and issuing Final Reports. Following is the list of clients handled:
Visa Worldwide Singapore PTE Limited Dalda Foods Private Limited Wazir Ali Industries Limited (WIL) Tuwairqi Steel Mills limited TSML Salfi Textile Mills Limited Island Textile Mills Limited Diamond International Corporation limited Tata Textile Mills Limited National Industrial Parks Development Management Company (NIP) United Bank Limited. TECHNICAL PROFESSIONAL SKILLS: QUICK BOOKS, TALLY , PEACH TREE MS-EXCEL, MS-WORD, MS-POWER POINT Aware of Deloitte Software AS 2 User level knowledge of different ERPs used by Essay on the Express by Agatha Christie client Can work under pressure and meet deadlines Have excellent communication interpersonal skills Self-motivated, comfortable in taking initiative and owen working independently. Attended various professional development seminars and training sessions including Deloitte Audit Methodology and updates in ISAs /IFRSs . Completed mandatory and essay optional training courses arranged by Employer regarding updating IFRS/ISAs, Industry specific courses, Financial management courses, Ethics based courses . Working at the Deloitte Pakistan Firm has enabled me to develop comprehensive understanding of the competitive and regulatory environments of diversified industries and owen the accounting and internal control systems implemented at what are the 13 14 amendments various organizations. During my training period at firm I was engaged as member of owen, audit team senior for special assignments, Internal Audits and agreed upon procedures, of various renowned listed and other clients. This is are the, a sample resume for Internal Auditor. An Internal Auditor’s job is to keep a check and balance on the sale and purchase of the company.
He monitors and accounts the different transactions made by the company throughout the owen, year. As this job is pretty responsible one so the employer would want to hire an employee with some experience in this field. Below we have devised a resume sample for you to help you explain yourself in an easy but impressive and grasping way. Adding previous credits and essay performances is definitely a plus for the employer’s attention. Last Post: Internal Auditor / Trainee Audit Officer. “To seek a challenging dynamic career oriented position, in ww1 wilfred owen, the field of education in pakistan essay, Accounting, Audit and Finance that offers opportunity for my professional growth and development and where I can add value in achieving organizations’ goals objectives, by owen utilizing my experience, knowledge skills”. DESIGNATION : Accounts Officer. Reconciled Hospital Inventory Fixed Assets additions from January 2014 To July 2014.
Reported other income to Assistant Finance Manager from January 2013 to July 2014 Submitted Revenue and Operating Expenses break-up summary to Management from January 2014 to September 2014. DESIGNATION : General Accountant. Responsible for racism in police, Assets and inventory management accounting. (Depreciation, Amortization, Repair Maintenance, Up-gradation Disposals, write off obsolete stock etc.) Responsible for owen, Liquidity, Cash Flow Working Capital management. (Cash/ Bank Balances, Debtors, Inventories Suppliers payments Management) Recognized managed Gratuity, Leave Salary, Air fare, Trade and Other Creditors Provisions and Liabilities in Financial Statements according to applicable UAE Labor law and IAS. Granger Ford. Responsible for Group Consolidated Revenue, Expenses, Accruals, Reconciliation Payroll recognition management. Finalized monthly, quarterly and annually Audit Files and year end closing entries in Financials and organized managed financial information Documentations.
Responsible for Group projects costing (related to Material, Labor Assets) Variance Analysis (Material price and usage, Labor rate and efficiency and Assets rates, efficiency and usage variances). DESIGNATION : Internal Auditor. Reported accounts staff deficiencies in expenses recognition and amortization of prepaid expenses to CEO. Evaluated internal control deficiencies and provide recommendation for improvements to CEO. Evaluated group’s financial statements integrity, completeness and accuracy by monitoring adherence and ww1 wilfred compliance of financial statements principles, policies and procedures to International Accounting Standards and international financial reporting standards. Evaluated Group’s resources and operations economy, efficiency and effective (3E’s) and reported misuse of resources and abuse towards SOP’s. Communicated with group’s external auditor for quarterly and year end audit.
Assisted in the behaviourist approach, preparation of monthly depreciation schedules for School Building, classroom and ww1 wilfred office furniture. Followed up and updated books of accounts for tuition fee receivable from students. Recorded and updated accounts department records, Files and Documentations systematically and as per policies and procedures of Organization. Assisted in the monthly, quarterly, and year end closing of accounts. Prepared, managed and documented export related documentsg. Commercial invoices, packing lists. Associated with opening, Endorsement, Retirement and are the 13 14 and 15 Management of Letter of Credits (LC). Encoded Advance Payments to suppliers in Local and Foreign Currencies.
Achieved 98% marks (Highest Ever) in owen, theoretical Knowledge test, for on the Express Christie, the position of accountant in Emirates Petrochemical Services Scaffolding Group. Got employment confirmation within 3 months (of total 6 months) probation period along with promotion (from “Accountant” to “Accountant General”) with 20% salary increment in Emirates petrochemical Services Scaffolding Group. Implemented rationale Customer Screening process for Trading division of ww1 wilfred, Emirates Petrochemical Services Scaffolding Group (which accounted for 20% of Group revenue) for reduction in risk of Bad Debts. Successfully executed “ CUSTOMIZED PETTY CASH ACCOUNTING SOFTWARE” in administration department of Group which helped to granger ford, encode petty cash transactions systematically and generated timely MIS reports for ww1 wilfred owen, management, along with proper system generated documentations. Will be furnished on Essay of Murder in Murder Orient Express Christie demand. Working Capital, Voucher, Treasury Petty Cash Management. Stock Control Inventory Management. Planning Budgeting Forecasting.
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mathus essay 11 February 1996. Britain in the 18th century was a nation in ww1 wilfred owen transition. The feudal system had been dying a slow death over the past several hundred years, and its aftereffects were visible everywhere, as tenant farmers, relics of the feudal era and aims for tesco a large percentage of the ww1 wilfred, British population, were forced to leave their lands. Wool had become a valuable product. The great landowners, seeing the profits to be made, declared many of the common lands to be private property, evicted the tenants, and racism began raising sheep.
Shepherding was much less labor-intensive than the methods of farming which had predominated until that time, so the vast majority of the dispossessed farmers had no opportunity for work. Factories did not yet exist, so when agricultural work could not be had, the ww1 wilfred owen, yeomen, lacking other options, were forced into pauperism. By the 1790s, poverty was rampant. At the same time, the French Revolution had spawned a new group of granger ford, Utopian writers and philosophers. The Utopians held that the overwhelming poverty in Britain at the time was due to the wealthy and their control over social and political institutions. They felt that economic power lead inevitably to political power, and if this economic power were removed, then the masses would be able to owen, reshape society in a new form, based on logic and reason, which would lead to a better life for all.
No one would go hungry, as resources would be allocated according to in pakistan essay, need, not according to wealth. This course of reason would lead to the abolition of government, law, and private property (Lecture, 22 Jan 96), and a true democratic society would prevail. Humanity would be set on a course of uninterrupted improvement, and eventual perfection. The Rev. Thomas Robert Malthus published his Essay on the Principle of Population as a response to the Utopians, based on the facts of the poverty he saw around him. As he saw it, there was one simple reason why the Utopian ideas could never work: there could never be enough food to support such an idealistic society. Human misery and suffering were practically inevitable. Malthus began his argument with two postulates: First, That food is necessary to the existence of man. Secondly, That the passion between the ww1 wilfred, sexes is necessary and will remain nearly in its present state (Essay. p. 70). In other words, man will continue to eat, and man will continue to reproduce.
Assuming these two conditions, Malthus goes on to state the essay, core of his argument within three short paragraphs: Population, when unchecked, increases in a geometrical ratio. Ww1 Wilfred! Subsistence increases only in an arithmetical ratio. A slight acquaintance with numbers will shew the immensity of the first power in comparison to the second. By that law of approach, our nature which makes food necessary to the life of man, the owen, effects of Essay on Morality in Murder on the by Agatha Christie, these two unequal powers must be kept equal. This implies a strong and constantly operating check on population from the difficulty of subsistence. This difficulty must fall somewhere and must necessarily be severely felt by a large portion of mankind. (Essay. p. 71) A society of the type the Utopians predicted, without hunger or poverty, was impossible. Mankind will continue to owen, reproduce until he consumes all available food supply, and then will only be prevented from expanding further by simple hunger. Therefore:
The natural inequality of the two powers of population and of production in the earth, and that great law of education in pakistan, our nature which must constantly keep their effects equal, form the great difficulty that to me appears insurmountable in ww1 wilfred the way to the perfectibility of society. And it appears, therefore, to be decisive against the possible existence of a society, all the members of which should live in ease, happiness, and comparative leisure; and feel no anxiety about providing the means of subsistence for themselves and families. Consequently, if the premises are just, the granger ford, argument is conclusive against owen, the perfectibility of the mass of mankind. (Essay. p. In Police! 72) This 'conclusive argument' by no means settled the debate; on the contrary, Malthus' grim predictions provoked a storm of rebuttals, which damaged but never quite destroyed the credibility of his theory. His two initial postulates, that man must eat and owen will continue to racism in police, reproduce, Malthus felt needed little defense. Obviously, a person must eat in ww1 wilfred owen order to survive, and despite some speculation by the Utopian William Godwin that the sexual instinct may eventually diminish, Malthus saw little sign of this occurring at any point in the near future, and dismissed the education, possibility as mere conjecture. Populations in general have the capacity to ww1 wilfred, increase geometrically, but this capacity is almost never fully exploited.
While this distinction was fully understood by Malthus, it was often misrepresented by his critics, who chose to interpret his Essay as claiming that population did, in actuality, increase in a geometric ratio (Introduction, p. 31-32). Racism In Police! Malthus used as a hypothetical example of geometric growth a certain strain of wheat, which, under normal circumstances, produced six grains for every one planted. Therefore, this wheat had the capacity to sextuple in population every year - at which rate, a single acre would have expanded to cover the earth's surface in fourteen years (A Summary View, p. Ww1 Wilfred Owen! 224). Obviously, wheat did not reproduce at its full capacity. However, the question of the maximum growth rate of a human population was somewhat more obscure.
Humans, unlike wheat, cannot be said to and 15, simply double in number every nine months. In his attempt to ww1 wilfred owen, find such a maximum growth rate, Malthus turned to the newly independent United States of America, using the country, with its vast surpluses of land and food, as his main evidence for what are the and 15, the natural increase of human population in a geometric ratio. Fortunately for Malthus, the recently-formed US government had readily available demographic statistics, in the form of census data. Ww1 Wilfred! Strangely, however, in his first Essay on in Murder on the Express by Agatha the Principle of Population, he summarized these statistics with the single phrase, the population has been found to double itself in twenty-five years, (Essay.. p. 74). While in later works, notably his 1830 Summary View of the Principle of ww1 wilfred owen, Population, Malthus would make full use of this data, in the first Essay it was all but ignored. Malthus' proof of the growth of the food supply in an arithmetic ratio was even less supported. He dismissed the possibility of geometric growth of the food supply as contrary to all our knowledge of the qualities of granger ford, land, and proposed instead that, at most, the ww1 wilfred, produce of the land could be increased every twenty-five years by granger ford, an amount equal to its present production, justifying this with the statement, The most enthusiastic speculator cannot suppose a greater increase than this, (Essay.. p. Owen! 74). This illustrates a persistent weakness in aims for tesco Malthus' proof; namely, his apparent love of theory and disregard for ww1 wilfred owen, more convincing empirical evidence. Accepting Malthus' ideas of the in police, relative growth rates of the population and the food supply, the next, and owen perhaps more important stage of his argument is the analysis of the consequences of this hypothesis.
Within several twenty-five year generations, the population, if unchecked, would far surpass the available food supply: In two centuries and a quarter, the population would be to the means of subsistence as 512 to 10: in three centuries as 4096 to 13, and in education in pakistan two thousand years the difference would be almost incalculable, though the ww1 wilfred, produce in that time would have increased to education, an immense extent, (Essay.. p. Ww1 Wilfred! 75). The effects of these vast differences are easy to predict for plants and animals: excess population would be cut down by lack of food. But with intelligent, reasoning human beings, the prediction is made more difficult. Malthus first classified the essay, checks on the growth of human population into two broad categories: positive and preventative checks. The positive checks were active in ww1 wilfred nature, and included such things as disease, war, and education in pakistan essay the most powerful check of all, famine. These were simple, effective, and brutal means of reducing population, the same found throughout nature. A population of plants might be pushed back by an encroaching weed, a situation analogous to war; deer may starve to death in an unusually snowy winter; and disease and plague can be imagined spreading through any conceivable population, though most especially in areas of high population density, where the disease is easily transmitted. The effects of the positive checks were dramatic and easy to see, but no less significant were what Malthus termed the preventative checks: The labourer who earns eighteen pence a day and lives with some degree of owen, comfort as a single man, will hesitate a little before he divides that pittance among four or five, which seems to be just sufficient for one, stated Malthus (Essay.. p. 91). This idea that a human can look ahead to the possibility of future difficulties, perhaps choosing not to have children rather than simply reproducing blindly, is the basic form of the preventative check.
According to Malthus, similar restraints, primarily economic in nature, exist at the behaviourist approach all levels of society, though they increase in owen strength as one goes down the racism in police, societal ladder. A nobleman had little to prevent him from having a family; his wealth would more than likely be sufficient to support many offspring, though they would be a slight drain on owen his finances. Granger Ford! However, in the case of a man well educated but only barely wealthy enough to maintain his upper-class status, the financial burden of children would perhaps be enough to drive him down into the society of common tradespeople, a sacrifice he may be unwilling to make. These same tradespeople, Malthus states, are encouraged to ww1 wilfred, postpone marriage until later in life, when they have established themselves with a farm or business of their own - a late marriage, of course, would provide far less time to bear children. Stepping down further, into the ranks of the laborers, Malthus sees not only diminished social standing, but also the possibility of incurring the dreaded positive checks, as reasons to hold off marriage.
At the lower ranks of of Murder in Murder on the Express Christie, society are the preventative checks strongest, as only the common man must face the ww1 wilfred, real possibility of being unable to feed his children (Essay. p. 89-91). It was here, at the low end of society, that Malthus saw the granger ford, force of his checks to population acting in ww1 wilfred full force, being responsible, in the long run, for the undisputed misery and discontent of the the behaviourist, lower classes. Malthus was not content with one classification system for his checks - or, perhaps, in the overwhelming disorganization of the first Essay, dashed off at the spur of the moment as it were, he simply lost track of the fact that he had, in fact, developed two parallel systems. The second, which took a more moralistic view, divided checks into owen misery and vice. This system, like the first, was exclusive, all checks falling into essay one category or the other: In short, stated Malthus, it is difficult to conceive any check to population which does not come under the description of some species of misery or vice, (Essay.. 106). Roughly speaking, these were checks visited upon ww1 wilfred owen, man by the outside world, and checks which came from man himself. Misery included such things as hunger, poverty, and disease.
Vice, was a concept which Malthus, with sensibilities typical of the time, was reluctant to define closely. The closest he came to defining vice explicitly was not until the publication of essay, A Summary View, wherein he listed the checks of vice that operated in a preventative manner: the sort of intercourse which renders some of the ww1 wilfred, women of racism in police, large towns unprolific; a general corruption of morals with regard to the sex, which has a similar effect; unnatural passions and improper arts to prevent the consequences of irregular connections, (Summary. Ww1 Wilfred Owen! p. 250). On Morality In Murder Express By Agatha! With these delicate terms, Malthus referred to ww1 wilfred, prostitution, venereal disease, homosexuality, and, notably, abortion and birth control. Malthus realized, apparently after the publication of the first Essay, that his classification of the checks to growth into vice and misery left little room for the preventative checks he discussed earlier. What And 15 Amendments! The decision to postpone having a family could neither be categorized as misery nor as vice. By the time of A Summary View, Malthus had changed his original stance, adding to owen, vice and on Morality in Murder Orient Express misery the category of ww1 wilfred owen, moral restraint (Summary.. p. Education Essay! 249). Moral restraint, according to Malthus, was the only possible way to avoid the brutal forces of misery and vice. Malthus was not blind to the grim nature of the future he forecast for mankind. Indeed, he stated in the preface to the Essay that, if proven wrong, he would rejoice in a conviction of his error, (Essay.. Ww1 Wilfred! p. 62). On Morality On The Orient Express By Agatha Christie! The ideas Malthus laid out, if true, spelled the end for hopes of human perfection on earth - misery was all but inevitable.
If this was the case, why, wondered the Anglican minister, had God created such a world? The final two chapters of the ww1 wilfred owen, Essay attempted to are the 13 14 and 15, answer this question, what theologists and philosophers termed the Question of Evil. Given a God who was both all-powerful and completely good, how, then, could the evil which Malthus predicted was inevitable exist? Could not God have simply created a world where Malthusian factors never came into owen play? The answer Malthus settled upon was that, in the divine plan, human suffering was not meaningless evil, but only a path to a greater good yet to come. A world where there was no pain would provide no stimulus to mental and spiritual growth, and would lead to racism in police, a race of mankind grown lazy and ww1 wilfred owen stupid with lack of exertion. The heart that has never known sorrow, said Malthus, itself will seldom be feelingly alive to the pains and pleasures, the on Morality on the Orient by Agatha, wants and ww1 wilfred owen wishes, of its fellow beings, (Essay.. p.209). Some suffering was necessary for true goodness to appear, argued Malthus, for in a world without evil, of what significance is good?
The petty misery caused by Malthus' checks was part of a divine plan, calculated so that, in the end, it would produce the greatest possible quantity of good, (Essay.. p. Granger Ford! 212). It is ironic that an essay begun with the express purpose of disproving a hypothesis of human perfectibility on earth, and maintaining throughout that suffering is ww1 wilfred, inevitable, should end with such an optimistic statement. Despite disorganization, mathematical weaknesses, and an almost complete lack of granger ford, supporting evidence, Malthus' first Essay was still an extremely important work, with influences extending to the present day. The ideas expressed by Malthus were read by Darwin, and played a major role in Darwin's development of the ww1 wilfred owen, theory of granger ford, evolution (Introduction, p. 50). Owen! Malthus' economic ideas are visible today as the Law of Diminishing Returns, a principle articulated by David Ricardo but originally expressed, albeit implicitly, in the Essay on Population (lecture, 5 Feb. 96). And, of course, though Malthus himself would no doubt be dismayed, the dark image of the future he depicted played a major role in the gradual acceptance of the improper arts of birth control. Interestingly, Malthus himself is the behaviourist, today famous as much for being wrong as for owen, being right. In the Western world today, there is little sign of encroaching Malthusian population pressures.
Population has increased far beyond what Malthus predicted possible, and starvation, in the First World countries at least, is not a significant problem. Advancements in agricultural technology have made possible tremendous food production, which so far has been able to keep up with the expanding population without overt Malthusian checks. But the fact that Malthus' dire predictions have not come true does not mean his basic ideas were without merit - indeed, they are the ancestors of economic and granger ford sociological theory today. Reference: Malthus, Thomas An Essay on the Principle of Population and ww1 wilfred owen A Summary View of the Principle of Population Penguin Books, London 1985.
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Le site http://ga-fc.fr est mis a jour regulierement par Frederique PAGE. On Morality Of Murder Orient. De la meme facon, les mentions legales peuvent etre modifiees a tout moment : elles s’imposent neanmoins a l’utilisateur qui est invite a s’y referer le plus souvent possible afin d’en prendre connaissance. 3. Ww1 Wilfred Owen. Description des services fournis. The Behaviourist Approach. Le site http://ga-fc.fr a pour objet de fournir une information concernant l’ensemble des activites de la societe. Groupement Addictions Franche-Comte s’efforce de fournir sur le site http://ga-fc.fr des informations aussi precises que possible. Owen. Toutefois, il ne pourra etre tenue responsable des omissions, des inexactitudes et des carences dans la mise a jour, qu’elles soient de son fait ou du fait des tiers partenaires qui lui fournissent ces informations. Tous les informations indiquees sur le site http://ga-fc.fr sont donnees a titre indicatif, et sont susceptibles d’evoluer. Par ailleurs, les renseignements figurant sur le site http://ga-fc.fr ne sont pas exhaustifs. Essay In Murder On The By Agatha. Ils sont donnes sous reserve de modifications ayant ete apportees depuis leur mise en ligne. 4. Owen. Limitations contractuelles sur les donnees techniques.
Toute exploitation non autorisee du site ou de l’un quelconque des elements qu’il contient sera consideree comme constitutive d’une contrefacon et poursuivie conformement aux dispositions des articles L.335-2 et suivants du Code de Propriete Intellectuelle. Aims For Tesco. 6. Ww1 Wilfred Owen. Limitations de responsabilite. Groupement Addictions Franche-Comte ne pourra etre tenue responsable des dommages directs et indirects causes au materiel de l’utilisateur, lors de l’acces au site http://ga-fc.fr, et resultant soit de l’utilisation d’un materiel ne repondant pas aux specifications indiquees au point 4, soit de l’apparition d’un bug ou d’une incompatibilite. Groupement Addictions Franche-Comte ne pourra egalement etre tenue responsable des dommages indirects (tels par exemple qu’une perte de marche ou perte d’une chance) consecutifs a l’utilisation du site http://ga-fc.fr. Racism In Police. Des espaces interactifs (possibilite de poser des questions dans l’espace contact) sont a la disposition des utilisateurs. Groupement Addictions Franche-Comte se reserve le droit de supprimer, sans mise en demeure prealable, tout contenu depose dans cet espace qui contreviendrait a la legislation applicable en France, en particulier aux dispositions relatives a la protection des donnees. Ww1 Wilfred Owen. Le cas echeant, Groupement Addictions Franche-Comte se reserve egalement la possibilite de mettre en cause la responsabilite civile et/ou penale de l’utilisateur, notamment en cas de message a caractere raciste, injurieux, diffamant, ou pornographique, quel que soit le support utilise (texte, photographie…). 7. Granger Ford. Gestion des donnees personnelles. Ww1 Wilfred Owen. En France, les donnees personnelles sont notamment protegees par la loi n° 78-87 du 6 janvier 1978, la loi n° 2004-801 du 6 aout 2004, l'article L. Essay. 226-13 du Code penal et la Directive Europeenne du 24 octobre 1995.
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Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for ww1 wilfred owen increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the racism healthy homework pilot study. Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and owen, healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into are the 13 14 and 15 amendments, intervention and ww1 wilfred owen, control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the in police intervention. Ww1 Wilfred Owen! Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the racism intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Owen! Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary.
Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of granger ford 2,830 steps.day -1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day -1 , 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day -1 , 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Owen! Further research in a larger study is on Morality in Murder Express by Agatha Christie, required to ww1 wilfred owen, confirm these initial results.
Electronic supplementary material. The online version of granger ford this article (doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-127 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Insufficient physical activity is a leading risk factor for numerous health disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes [ 1 ]. Ww1 Wilfred Owen! While methodological differences make it difficult to compare secular trends in the behaviourist, children's free-living physical activity, there is evidence that organised physical activity is declining in many countries [ 2 ]. Owen! Similarly, sedentary behaviours, such as television watching and computer use, have increased rapidly in children over the past five years [ 3 ]. It is Essay on the Express, generally believed that such trends have contributed to the widespread increases in childhood overweight and obesity [ 4 ]; however, physical activity is only one side of the energy balance equation. Poor nutrition undoubtedly contributes to ww1 wilfred, the onset of obesity in children, although the mechanisms responsible for this association remain indistinct. Some studies have demonstrated a link between under-consumption of racism in police fruit and vegetables and owen, child obesity [ 5 , 6 ], while others show no relationship [ 7 ]. On Morality In Murder On The Christie! Likewise, the over-consumption of energy-dense foods and drinks has been associated with child obesity in some [ 8 , 9 , 10 ] but not all studies [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. Regardless of the specific pathways to chronic disease, physical activity and dietary patterns tend to track across the lifespan [ 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ]; therefore, it makes sense to correct unhealthy habits before they have a lasting impact. The development of effective and sustainable programmes that encourage young people to ww1 wilfred, lead healthy, active lives is a key priority in this regard. The majority of what are the 13 14 and 15 lifestyle interventions for children have focused on ww1 wilfred owen the promotion of healthy behaviours while children are at school; however, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that children are more likely to be inactive and consume unhealthy foods when at home. Our previous research showed that New Zealand children were considerably less active on aims for tesco weekends than on weekdays [ 20 ], and that active children achieve a significantly greater proportion of their activity outside of school than inactive children [ 21 ]. This is consistent with international data that support the promotion of physical activity in the home environment [ 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Although we know that the majority of children's dietary intake is ww1 wilfred owen, consumed at home [ 25 ], research investigating the differences in dietary intake between the school and in pakistan, home environments has been equivocal. Ww1 Wilfred Owen! A recent study reported that New Zealand children are more likely to consume high cholesterol foods and soft drinks on non-school days than on granger ford school days [ 26 ]. Another study indicated that American children consume a relatively high amount of energy from fat on weekends [ 27 ]. Two other studies showed no difference in dietary intake between school and non-school days [ 28 , 29 ]. In any case, reviews of interventions to promote physical activity [ 30 , 31 ] and correlates of dietary behaviour [ 32 ] in children and adolescents concluded that programmes that involve families are more likely to be effective than those that do not.
Nonetheless, exclusively home-based initiatives are logistically impractical and tend to be unsustainable. A more feasible approach is to use schools to access children for ww1 wilfred the purpose of encouraging healthy behaviour in what 13 14 amendments, the home environment. Several studies have endeavoured to ww1 wilfred owen, promote physical activity and/or healthy eating outside of school by incorporating homework components into school-based interventions. Results have been mixed, with some showing positive effects [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ] and others showing no effect [ 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 ]. However, it is difficult to determine the contributions of homework given that all studies employed multiple approaches, and many were limited by low statistical power [ 33 ], self- or proxy-reporting of physical activity [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 41 , 43 , 45 ], or relatively minor homework components [ 33 , 34 , 36 , 37 , 39 , 40 , 44 , 45 ]. In all cases, the homework element assumed secondary importance to the school-based components. The Behaviourist! We are unaware of any studies that have investigated the ww1 wilfred effects of a compulsory homework syllabus on health outcomes. In Murder Orient! The aim of this pilot study was to ww1 wilfred, examine the efficacy of granger ford a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. Description of behaviour change techniques and ww1 wilfred owen, strategies implemented in the Healthy Homework Pilot Study.
Behaviour Change Technique. Key behavioural determinant. Provide information about approach behaviour-health link. Children were provided with information about the positive health outcomes associated with various healthy behaviours throughout the ww1 wilfred programme. Provide information on consequences. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. The beneficial consequences of specific physical activity and healthy eating patterns were reinforced throughout the programme. Prompt intention formation. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. At the completion of the aims for tesco programme, children were encouraged to make long-term behavioural resolutions related to the tasks they had accomplished during the ww1 wilfred owen programme.
Prompt barrier identification. Several topics required the children to identify common barriers to healthy behaviours and how those barriers might be overcome in the context of their lives. Set graded tasks. Children were required to complete at Essay of Murder Orient Express by Agatha Christie least one out of owen three homework tasks that promoted increased knowledge of a given topic. When one task was completed, children were encouraged to racism in police, complete all of the remaining tasks to ww1 wilfred owen, supplement their knowledge. Availability of information (environmental) Detailed instruction for each topic was provided in-class by the teacher and via the granger ford homework booklets. Prompt specific goal setting. Each homework task had a specific goal that children could achieve. Ww1 Wilfred! Tasks provided guidance about where, when, how, and with whom the in pakistan task could be completed. Prompt review of behavioural goals.
Teacher regulation (environmental) Each week the teacher was required to ww1 wilfred, review each child's homework tasks from the previous week (individually) and discuss any facilitators or barriers to completion (as a group). Children were given advice about how to complete any unfinished tasks. Provide feedback on performance. At the completion of the programme, children and what are the amendments, their parents received a feedback form that detailed all changes to physical activity and dietary behaviour taken during the evaluation. Provide contingent rewards. Children received rubber wristbands if they completed their homework requirements for ww1 wilfred a given week (at least one physical activity and one nutrition task).
A black-coloured band was reserved for children who completed all six tasks on what are the 13 14 and 15 a given week. The majority of homework tasks required multiple sessions or practice of a behaviour. Provide opportunities for social comparison. Subjective norms (social) Many in-class activities were based on practical group tasks that required children to observe and compare their behaviour against others.
Children were encouraged to support each other to complete tasks. Plan social support or social change. Social support theories. Family support (social) A large number of homework tasks recommended participation as a family. Messages for the parents reinforcing the owen benefits of in pakistan essay family support were embedded in homework tasks. IMB = information-motivation-behavioural skills model; TRA = theory of reasoned action; TPB = theory of planned behaviour; SCogT = social-cognitive theory; CT = control theory; OC = operant conditioning. The final programme consisted of a six-week homework schedule complemented by an in-class teaching resource, and was designed to support the achievement objectives associated with Level 3 of the New Zealand Health and Physical Education Curriculum [ 48 ]. Each child received a homework booklet organised into five physical activity and ww1 wilfred, five nutrition topics: Week 1, walking and fruit/vegetables; Week 2, television and breakfast; Week 3, sports and drinks; Week 4, fun games and food shopping; Week 5, fitness and cooking. Week 6 consisted of the completion of the previous week's homework in addition to group presentations about key aspects of the programme. Three homework options were provided for are the and 15 amendments each topic, and the children were required to ww1 wilfred owen, complete at least one task per what are the 13 14 topic (i.e., at least two tasks per week).
Examples of the physical activity tasks include family walks around the neighbourhood, walking to and from school, limiting television time, coaching parents in a particular sport, inventing a fun game (individual or team), testing the fitness of the owen family, and swimming at the local pool (subsidised entry was organised). Examples of the aims for tesco nutrition tasks include eating at least five servings of fruit or vegetables, preparing and eating a healthy breakfast, using a water bottle throughout the day, reducing consumption of unhealthy foods and drinks, comparing food labels when shopping, helping to prepare a healthy dinner, and preparing a healthy lunch box. Many of the owen tasks were designed to encourage parental participation and family involvement. Each task was accompanied by a related question designed to are the, encourage independent inquiry and knowledge formation. Colourful rubber wristbands were provided each week for children who completed their homework obligations, with a special colour reserved for those who completed all six tasks on a given week. Other resources included soft throwing disks (fun games topic), a food advertising educational DVD (television topic), fitness test sheets (fitness topic), recipe cards (cooking topic), guides to ww1 wilfred, reading food labels (shopping topic), and drink bottles (drinks topic). In addition, a password-protected Healthy Homework website was developed so that participating children from both schools could interact with each other through blogs, photos, and are the 13 14 and 15 amendments, wikis. The Healthy Homework teaching resource was designed to complement the homework activities by providing sufficient educational content and in-class exercises for three 1.5 hour sessions each week (including one session reviewing the previous week's homework).
Theoretical and practical approaches were combined to enhance the children's understanding of each topic. Teachers were free to use the in-class resource as much or as little as required. Two Auckland primary schools participated in the pilot study: School A had a socioeconomic status (SES) rating in the lowest decile of ww1 wilfred owen New Zealand primary schools, whereas School B was in the highest SES decile. The Behaviourist! Eight classes of Year 5-6 children (aged 9-11 years) were randomised into four intervention and four control classes. All children in owen, the intervention classes completed the aims for tesco Healthy Homework module as part of school policy; however, parental consent was required before children were able to participate in the evaluation of the intervention. Consent was obtained for 100 of the 216 children initially selected (46.3%). Three children were excluded due to incomplete data, resulting in a final sample size of 97 (intervention: 22 boys, 35 girls; control: 13 boys, 27 girls).
The ethnic composition of the sample was 48.5% European, 32.0% Pacific Island, 8.2% Maori, 6.2% Asian, and 5.2% from other ethnicities. Ww1 Wilfred! The institutional ethics committee provided ethical approval for what and 15 amendments the study (07/177). Daily physical activity levels were measured with sealed pedometers over four consecutive days (two weekdays and owen, two weekend days). This monitoring period was chosen as the ideal balance between practicality and racism, reliability requirements [ 49 ]. Pedometers provide an objective, cost-effective assessment of physical activity that can be easily compared among different time periods, demographic groups, and/or locations. The NL-2000 pedometer (New Lifestyles Inc, Lee's Summit, MO) has a multiday memory function that automatically stores step counts according to the day of the week for up to seven days, enabling the comparison of weekday and weekend step counts [ 20 ]. Ww1 Wilfred! Our previous research has established the validity of the Essay in Murder Orient Express by Agatha Christie NL-2000 for measuring steps in children [ 50 ]. Prior to owen, use, all pedometers were checked for faults using five repetitions of the 100-step walking test described by Vincent and Sidman [ 51 ]. Instrumental error did not exceed 3% in education essay, any of the pedometers. Before receiving their sealed pedometers, children were given an explanation of the pedometer's function and a demonstration by a researcher. Participants were asked to attach the ww1 wilfred owen pedometer to their waistline all day except when swimming, showering, or sleeping.
To assess participant compliance outside of the school environment, children maintained a 4-day diary in what are the 13 14 and 15 amendments, which they were asked to note how many hours they did not wear the pedometer each day. Non-compliance during school hours was considered negligible due to active teacher assistance. Data were excluded if participants removed the pedometer for more than one hour on a given day. Daily step counts below 1,000 or above 30,000 were regarded as outliers and owen, were removed [ 52 ]. The 4-day pedometer compliance diary also contained fields for children to record daily screen time (television, gaming consoles, and are the and 15 amendments, personal computers), sports participation, and active transport to and from school.
In addition, a food diary was issued for ww1 wilfred children to record the type and quantity of all foods and aims for tesco, drinks consumed over the four-day period. Owen! A food diary is a daily record of racism in police all the food and ww1 wilfred, fluid consumed over a specified time; a blank template for the required days is provided. While food diaries have been validated for accuracy against measures of energy expenditure, outcomes in the literature are varied, with underestimation of energy intake sometimes reported [ 53 , 54 ]. Despite this, we chose to use food diaries so that we could compare both the quality and quantity of food and fluid intake on weekdays and weekend days. Alternative instruments, such as food frequency questionnaires, generally do not represent a full day's food or fluid intake and therefore would fail to capture such a complete dataset. All participants were given a detailed explanation about granger ford how to correctly fill in owen, the diaries, and of Murder in Murder Express by Agatha, parents were given written instructions to assist their child in completing the owen diaries accurately and to a sufficient level of detail.
Dietary information from the granger ford diaries was extracted and grouped into four categories: fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption. Food and ww1 wilfred, drinks were defined as unhealthy in accordance with the granger ford 'occasional foods' tier of the owen three-tiered New Zealand Food and Beverage classification system. Food and drinks that fall into this category are those that are energy dense and nutrient poor, and include confectionery and chocolate, deep-fried food, full-sugar soft drinks, and high-fat pastry products. Granger Ford! All measurements (diaries and pedometers) were taken once during the week preceding the intervention (baseline) and once during the week following the ww1 wilfred completion of the intervention (follow-up). Granger Ford! Both schools were assessed over the same time period (May-June 2009). Medians and interquartile ranges for all variables were generated with weekday and weekend data presented separately along with an overall weighted mean (five weekdays to two weekend days). Differences between treatment groups were examined using independent samples Mann-Whitney's U tests, and initial pre- and post-intervention comparisons were made using Wilcoxon's matched pairs signed-rank tests (with the data split by ww1 wilfred, intervention group).
A normal generalized estimating equation (GEE) model on in pakistan square-root transformed step counts was used to detect an intervention effect after accounting for day type, school year, school, class, sex, and ethnicity. The latter two variables were included given the identification of differences between groups in our previous work [ 20 ]. A binary GEE model was used to determine whether there was a differential pattern of missing pedometer counts for participants between intervention groups. Treatment group effects for all other variables (screen time, sports participation, active transport, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption) were examined using analysis of covariance adjusted for regression to the mean. All analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA), and ? = 0.05 defined statistical significance for all tests. Median and owen, interquartile range of the the behaviourist approach physical activity and dietary variables for the intervention and control groups.
Physical activity (steps.day -1 ) 10,700 (8,420, 12,150) 12,290 (9,990, 16,270) ‡ 11,460 (9,110, 13,660) 10,100 (7,670, 14,160) 7,940 (5,760, 11,770) 8,670 (6,460, 11,960) 8,160 (6,410, 11,470) 10,790 (8,200, 12,160) 11,790 (9,670, 15,680) † 11,240 (9,420, 12,860) 9,910 (7,500, 12,700) Screen time (h.day -1 ) Sports participation (h.day -1 ) Active transport to/from school (h.day -1 ) Fruit consumption (servings.day -1 ) Vegetable consumption (servings.day -1 ) Unhealthy food consumption (servings.day -1 ) Unhealthy drink consumption (servings.day -1 ) *Significantly different from intervention (P 0.05). † Significantly different from baseline (P 0.05); ‡ Significantly different from baseline (P 0.01).
Summary of the adjusted multivariable model coefficients for ww1 wilfred owen square root step counts . Binary GEE model analyses of participants with missing pedometer count values revealed that there was a significant increase in the proportion of missing step count values post-intervention compared with pre-intervention (P = 0.006); however, there were no significant differences in the proportion of missing values between intervention and control groups either pre-intervention (P = 0.905) or post-intervention (P = 0.481). This indicates that the loss of data is not differentially related to the intervention group. Intervention effects (± 95% CI) for Essay on Morality on the Orient Christie selected physical activity and owen, dietary behaviours . *Significant intervention effect for granger ford weekends and overall (P 0.05). In this study, we developed, implemented, and evaluated the ww1 wilfred owen first compulsory homework syllabus for promoting children's physical activity outside of school. A key strength of the the behaviourist study was the use of an objective measure (pedometer) to ww1 wilfred, accurately monitor changes in physical activity. The results showed that the Healthy Homework pilot had positive effects on in pakistan essay the daily step counts of ww1 wilfred owen both boys and girls. The intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day -1 corresponds to the behaviourist approach, over 25% more activity each day (based on the sample mean pre-intervention).
This effect was driven by both an increase of 1,100 steps.day -1 in the intervention group and a decrease of owen 1,480 steps/day -1 in the control group. While the reasons for the decrease in the behaviourist approach, the control group are unknown, it appears the programme had a protective effect that precluded a similar decrease in the intervention group. Furthermore, the proportion of children achieving step count targets directly related to the prevention of excess body fat (16,000 steps.day -1 for boys, 13,000 steps.day -1 for girls [ 55 ]) increased from 8.6% to 31.3% in the intervention group, whereas children in ww1 wilfred, the control group increased from 14.3% to 16.7%. We also found that the effects of the intervention on on Morality Orient Express physical activity were similar for both weekdays and owen, weekends. This is a noteworthy finding given that children's activity levels tend to diminish during the weekend [ 20 , 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Applied homework that encourages home-based activity appears to be an effective way of aims for tesco targeting this problem area. The positive effect of the Healthy Homework programme on physical activity is relatively unusual given the outcomes of previous intervention research. In a comprehensive review of physical activity interventions in children, van Sluijs et al [ 30 ] found that only four of 19 education-based interventions reported significantly positive effects on physical activity.
In a similar review, Salmon et al [ 31 ] noted that only one of owen five 'curriculum only' interventions successfully increased physical activity. In Pakistan! However, the success rate was higher in studies that were implemented through the school but involved the family (seven out of ww1 wilfred 13). It appears that a focus on the home environment increases the probability of meaningful effects. Our promising results may have been due to the emphasis that was placed on increasing physical activity outside of granger ford school, including on ww1 wilfred owen the weekends. Only two other behaviours showed significantly different pre-post changes between intervention and control participants. On weekends, vegetable consumption increased by 0.83 servings.day -1 and unhealthy food consumption decreased by 0.56 servings.day -1 as a result of programme participation. The increase in education in pakistan essay, vegetable consumption is noteworthy as it is equivalent to approximately 28% of the daily vegetable recommendation of owen three servings a day.
In addition, an increase of 0.83 servings.day -1 compares favourably with previous interventions that focus solely on fruit and the behaviourist, vegetable intake. Two reviews of successful fruit and owen, vegetable interventions in children found that the majority of increases were between 0.2 and 0.6 daily servings [ 56 , 57 ]. In contrast to the behaviourist, our findings, increases in fruit intake were generally more frequent and owen, substantial than increases in vegetable intake. The decrease in unhealthy food consumption we observed on weekends, while relatively small, is essay, a step in the right direction. Changes in both vegetable and unhealthy food consumption were key priorities in the Healthy Homework programme, and may represent positive shifts in the home environment that could potentiate other healthy lifestyle patterns. Whether or not a longer or more intensive homework intervention augments these improvements remains to be seen. Non-significant effects in the remaining variables targeted in the intervention (screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, fruit consumption, and ww1 wilfred, unhealthy drink consumption) suggest that the aims for tesco materials or approaches for ww1 wilfred owen these topics may have been insufficient. The absence of improvements in screen time and unhealthy drink consumption were particularly disappointing given that both were dedicated topics. It is possible that more than one week of exposure to these topics is required to generate change. Perhaps not enough realistic alternatives were provided to aims for tesco, prompt children to modify their screen time or fluid consumption.
On the other hand, the small sample size may have obscured real effects in these behaviours. Clearly, a larger sample would allow these factors to be examined with greater precision. Another important discovery was that the intervention yielded benefits for ww1 wilfred owen boys and girls from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. The two participating schools were deliberately chosen to on Morality of Murder in Murder on the by Agatha, represent opposite ends of the socioeconomic spectrum. The similarity of the intervention effects in both schools suggests that it is owen, likely to education essay, be beneficial for other primary-level schools, regardless of the socioeconomic rating. Owen! The majority of previous studies that have implemented physical activity or nutrition interventions with home-based elements have not included SES in the analysis. Of those that did, two reported smaller effects in Essay in Murder Express, low SES compared with high SES groups [ 38 , 39 ], while two reported no noticeable differences [ 37 , 40 ]. Nonetheless, it is possible that in the latter studies (and the present one) the similar overall effects on ww1 wilfred owen physical activity and/or dietary patterns between SES groups were generated through different pathways.
Indeed, there is evidence that families from different socioeconomic backgrounds support their children to be active in different ways [ 58 ]. A qualitative comparison of the preferences of homework activities and resources among children and parents from 13 14 and 15 amendments diverse socioeconomic regions could be beneficial in this regard. The question remains whether the owen positive changes observed in this pilot study are maintained beyond the completion of the Essay on Morality Express Christie programme. A potential criticism of the ww1 wilfred owen programme was the use of wristbands as rewards to increase compliance: a viewpoint common among educators is that the desired behaviour will cease once the reward is approach, removed. We contend that the rewards, in this instance, were used to engage children for the purpose of learning how to ww1 wilfred, be active on their own. While this approach leans towards constructivism - the theory that individuals will generate their own knowledge and understanding from experience - it maintains enough structure that children with little or no understanding of the in pakistan selected topics are guided towards discovery. The programme aims to create functional knowledge that is taken with the ww1 wilfred child beyond the completion of the the behaviourist approach programme, resulting in greater opportunities to ww1 wilfred, be active and education in pakistan essay, promoting lifelong healthy behaviour. Clearly, we cannot comment on the success of ww1 wilfred this ambition in the present pilot study; however, future studies should consider taking long-term follow-up measures to granger ford, assess the sustainability of ww1 wilfred owen any positive outcomes. Assessment of the effects on health knowledge would also contribute to a better understanding of the precursors to behaviour change in children. A key facet of the present study is its foundation in the education system. While the goals of the programme are clearly health-related, there are several advantages of operating within the education environment: (1) it is relatively cost-effective to introduce applied homework activities into Essay on Morality in Murder Orient, an existing curriculum, (2) the vast majority of the population can be accessed (all children are required to attend school), and (3) the expertise of trained teachers can be utilised to effectively deliver health-related educational material and owen, instruction.
In this study, we developed a homework programme that contributed to all four strands of the Essay of Murder in Murder on the Orient Express Health and Physical Education achievement objectives stated in the New Zealand Curriculum [ 48 ]: (1) personal health and ww1 wilfred owen, physical development, (2) movement concepts and motor skills, (3) relationships with other people, and (4) healthy communities and environments. This strategy enabled teachers to implement the programme without sacrificing their formal teaching obligations. Aligning health promotion initiatives with national education guidelines is also likely to approach, increase buy-in from senior school staff and ww1 wilfred owen, parents. Another important element of the study was its compulsory nature. As with conventional homework, children were required to complete the minimum number of tasks each week, obtain approval from their parents, and report back to their teacher. This approach was chosen to 13 14 and 15, maximise the level of engagement in the programme, which may explain why significant effects on physical activity and owen, diet were observed in Essay on Morality on the Express by Agatha Christie, a relatively small sample. To our knowledge, no previous physical activity or nutrition interventions have adopted a compulsory approach to home-based components. The primary limitation of this study was the small sample size. While this is a pilot study, we were disappointed by the low consent rate for owen the evaluation (46.3%).
Clearly, the lower the consent rate the greater the chance of sample bias, whereby only the children most likely to engage in the programme are evaluated. Essay On Morality In Murder On The Orient Express By Agatha Christie! In addition, there were 77% more girls than boys in the final sample, and 43% more intervention than control participants. Ww1 Wilfred! These atypical proportions make it more difficult to generalise the aims for tesco findings to the wider population. Nevertheless, the detection of significant effects even in owen, our restricted sample with relatively wide confidence intervals suggests that there may be other effects that could be detected in granger ford, a larger sample with tighter intervals. Another limitation was the necessity to randomise at the class level. It is probable that a certain amount of class contamination occurred, such that the behaviour of the control participants was affected by the experiences of the intervention participants as they progressed through the ww1 wilfred owen programme. Indeed, certain behaviours showed significant improvements pre- and post-intervention in the control sample.
While the probability of class contamination does not negate the observed effects of the programme (true effects would be dampened rather than enhanced), it would be preferable for future studies to on Morality Express Christie, randomise at the school level. Also, we decided not to request the return of the children's booklets at the completion of the study (in case they were used in future), and consequently we had no record of homework compliance. While all participating teachers assured us that almost all of the children completed their homework each week, it is not known if some children completed more tasks than others. Future studies should consider asking the teacher to maintain a log of completed homework tasks to enable compliance to be monitored more closely. Ww1 Wilfred Owen! Finally, the effects of the homework programme on in police family members of participating children were not assessed in ww1 wilfred, this study. And 15 Amendments! Many of the tasks were designed to foster family involvement, with the intended side effect of improving relationships and promoting healthier lifestyles throughout the family. Further research is needed to elucidate these factors. Compared with the control group, the Healthy Homework pilot study resulted approximately 25% more physical activity each day in both boys and girls, and was effective at encouraging activity on both weekdays and weekends. Promising improvements to other important behaviours, such as vegetable and unhealthy food consumption, suggest that compulsory health-related homework offers multiple benefits for children. Implementation in owen, a larger sample over a longer assessment period would enable the short- and long-term effects of aims for tesco this approach to ww1 wilfred, be determined.
This study was funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand (08/384). The authors would like to thank the children, parents, and school staff who participated in the study. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. SD conceived and designed the study, developed the intervention, contributed to the statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript. JCM collected and entered the data and helped to draft the manuscript. In Police! PJS participated in ww1 wilfred owen, the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis. CZ assisted with the development of the intervention and racism in police, the data preparation. RS participated in the development of the ww1 wilfred owen intervention. GS helped design the study and develop the intervention. All authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the what are the 13 14 amendments Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and ww1 wilfred, reproduction in amendments, any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Scott Duncan 1 Email author Julia C McPhee 1 Philip J Schluter 2 3 4 Caryn Zinn 1 Richard Smith 5 Grant Schofield 1 1. Centre for Physical Activity and owen, Nutrition AUT University New Zealand 2. Department of Public Health and General Practice University of Otago Christchurch New Zealand 3. School of Public Health and aims for tesco, Psychosocial Studies AUT University New Zealand 4. School of Nursing and ww1 wilfred owen, Midwifery University of Queensland Australia 5. National Institute of Essay on Morality of Murder in Murder Orient Express Christie Education Singapore. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.
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