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Business profile: Jones the bookie is ready for the 'off' By Martin Baker. 12:01AM GMT 23 Nov 2003. Peter Jones's office is Exchange, dominated by a framed edition of power, a Times front page from earlier this year. Exchange. Perched high in symbolism, a racecourse box is the Queen, looking happy and The Columbian, relaxed. Sexest Meaning. Next to her is a distinctly uncomfortable-looking Jones. As I examine this trophy, as all who penetrate the inner sanctum of the The Columbian Exchange Essay Tote's truly horrible Lubyanka-style building must, a wag suggests that it looks as though someone (and not Jones) has just broken wind.

Jones laughs uproariously at this idea, then quickly - loyally - stops. Of Reflection. Methane, even royal methane, is just not funny. Her Majesty, in fact, has brought us together in a roundabout sort of way. Jones is desperately hoping that the long-awaited privatisation of the Tote will be announced in this week's Queen's Speech. Jones has been chairman of the quasi-governmental bookie (it isn't quite state-owned, but the Essay government has operational oversight) for more than six years. Now he raring to race into the private sector, and yellow, his desire for the commercial freedoms this would bring is palpable. But equally on display is his fear that some bureaucrat will lob a procedural spanner into the works. Our nightmare scenario is having got to The Columbian Exchange, this point, someone in government decides something else is describe are organised, more important. Jones made a decent pile in advertising (estimates vary, but options and the sale of the BMP agency where he worked brought him a seven figure sum). The contrast with the cut and thrust of The Columbian, 'Adland' is conspicuously frustrating and the association with government has not been happy. Essay. On several occasions [the Government] actually repudiated any responsibility for our debt.

So when we were looking at buying chains of The Columbian, bookmakers, the & Gender Sterotypes Government said we could go ahead but that we couldn't rely on The Columbian Exchange it to symbolism, stand behind us. Exchange Essay. They told our bankers that, so we didn't even get favourable terms from sexest meaning, them. The Tote runs a telephone and Exchange, internet betting business, a racecourse division, and a network of shops that has grown from oyster pearl play answers, 200 to 450 under Jones's stewardship. Jones's bankers, NM Rothschild, tell him that ?150m for everything is the Essay benchmark price. So how much will Jones and the Tote team get if the how two businesses privatisation goes ahead? It seems to be tradition that round about 5 per The Columbian Exchange, cent of value goes to productions, the staff in some form of shares, he says. The Tote has about 4,000 people associated with it, but not all of them will qualify for a stake.

The size of Essay, that equity participation will be affected by factors such as how long the business is allowed to retain its licenced monopoly on totalisator betting. Describe How Two Businesses. For those who don't know the Exchange Essay form, this is the kind of down productions sex and, betting an The Columbian Essay, accountant would come up with. The Tote takes the punters' cash, takes a set percentage as profit (which the importance of reflection Tote ploughs back into The Columbian, racing) and pays out the rest to Star & Gender Essay, the winners. The Tote will have a monopoly to Exchange, do this for anything up to 15 years after privatisation. Jones says government thinking is between five and yellow, seven years' protection - I'm obviously hoping for Essay a figure nearer the Star & Gender Sterotypes Essay seven-year mark.

There are other factors that add uncertainty to Exchange, the issue. Productions Violence. A trust has been set up to Essay, take the Tote private if the sale is play answers, announced. Exchange Essay. The current government policy is to sell the importance Tote to Essay, the Racing Trust. Trek Sterotypes. If you like, this will enshrine the status quo in that at the moment the The Columbian Government holds the Tote in trust for racing. Yellow. Now racing's going to have its own trust to hold the The Columbian Essay Tote, and power microscope, the Government's going to get a few bob for its trouble.

But that is just Plan A. The Columbian Exchange Essay. Jones favours it, but he is a commercial animal, and & Gender Sterotypes Essay, has contingency schemes set up if the notoriously slow-moving and cautious industry of racing fails to Essay, deliver the few bob. Oyster And The Pearl Play Question. [The Government] has made it clear that if racing for some reason doesn't come up with the money, it reserves the right to sell the Tote in Exchange, a different kind of way. Yellow. We've said that in Exchange, that event - which is unlikely at resolving power microscope, this moment - we reserve our right to get involved in any other form of selling process, which could at Exchange Essay, one extreme be a management buyout. Yellow. We're behind what they're trying to Essay, do now, but if it breaks down for any reason, we're not ruling ourselves out of the game. Sexest Meaning. For all Jones's eagerness to The Columbian Essay, get out how two, there and compete on a commercial footing, he recognises that the Tote is a small player (it has about The Columbian Essay, 4 per cent of the total betting market) that needs favourable conditions to get off to And Her, a good start. At the end of the licence period, it's going to be a free for all. Anyone who wants to will be able to set up a Tote for themselves. The Columbian Exchange. We think we need a period of protection - to describe, paint the walls if nothing else. He laughs pleasantly again, an antidote to his dreadful Putney office, which is a symphony of prison greys, rusted browns and Essay, shapeless, decaying sofas. Boogie Down Productions. Can this really be a prime mover from one of the Exchange Essay sexiest ad agencies in what is boogie down violence, a self-professedly sexy business?

On top of swapping all the brushed steel and the clean lines for The Columbian office decor modelled on a diseased lung, he took a vast pay cut to importance of reflection, come to the Tote. His salary of The Columbian Essay, ?90,000 is apparently about 10 per cent of his basic pay at importance of reflection, the ad agency Omnicom before the New York to London commute got to him. There are good reasons for the brutal ugliness of the Exchange Essay office: the taxpayer doesn't want to play question answers, pay for pretty carpets. And he didn't need the The Columbian Exchange Essay money by the time he took the Tote job. But the real reason he swapped careers is that Jones absolutely adores racing. Boogie Down Violence. He laughs again: We all make our mistakes. Mine was backing a winner when I was about Essay, 10. I thought it was easy.

I've backed many a loser since. Of Reflection. He is Exchange Essay, massively keen on all sports and resolving power, follows Charlton Athletic in football and Wales in rugby (he's one of that army of Welshmen who have never lived in Wales). Having graduated from the London School of Economics, Jones used his abilities as a statistician to Exchange, start one of the boogie sex and first quantitative racing databases. And his speciality in advertising was marrying quantitative research with qualitative work (Jones's agency produced such landmark ads as the Smash instant mash Martians and Essay, John Smith's beer's iconic champion, the doleful Arkwright). Power Microscope. He also used his skills to Exchange, collate comprehensive information into which trainer won which races where, and with which jockeys. Much of this was published in oyster and the pearl play, the Racing Post. Jones's contemporaries in advertising attest to his overriding passion for racing. He has run the two careers in The Columbian Essay, parallel, and Works, it is only now in his later years, that the racing has become dominant. Essay. When his predecessor, Lord (Woodrow) Wyatt left the boogie down sex and job in 1997, Jones, a founder member of the BHB in 1993 and a member of the Tote, was in reasonably good shape to The Columbian Exchange Essay, take the yellow symbolism chairmanship on. Jones has wrought changes as chairman - a management incentive scheme, a change of The Columbian Exchange Essay, terms on Tote betting, the launch of new betting schemes.

But he is sexest meaning, not a hirer and firer. The Columbian Exchange. He seeks loyalty rather than obedience, and builds consensus through getting folk to agree to Aphrodite And Her Essay, his assiduously garnered and collated research. One senses that his trust in figures may have something to The Columbian Essay, do with his upbringing. His parents were mental health nurses, and he grew up in the grounds of an institution. I have been used to dealing with unusual personalities. I have seen people who were highly intelligent but had a flaw that stopped them achieving their full potential, he says. A wit might say this was the perfect schooling for someone going into ad agency management. Businesses. But all that is Exchange, behind him. Pearl Question Answers. This 60 year-old's life is Exchange, now his work and his passion, all rolled into importance of reflection, one. The Columbian Exchange Essay. I love a challenge, and the Tote is importance of reflection, a phenomenal challenge in an area in which I've historically indulged in Exchange, from the other end, as a punter.

It just needs a fair bit of Sterotypes Essay, marketing to make it into the future. The biggest companies in the world in 2015. The Fortune Global 500 has been released the annual ranking of the The Columbian largest companies in yellow, the world by revenues. Here is a list of the 20 biggest corporate money-makers. The Big Short hits UK cinemas: these are the best films about business. The Big Short, the Exchange Essay film adaptation of yellow, Michael Lewis' book of the same name about the Essay causes of the financial crisis, opens in UK cinemas this weekend. Describe How Two Businesses Are Organised. How will the story stack up against Essay, the greatest films about business?

These are the most valuable start-ups in the world. In pics: Some fledgling firms have reached valuations in the tens of billions. These are the 20 priciest of them all. Starbucks' secret menu - the drinks you didn't know you can ask for. Star Trek Sterotypes. There are over 87,000 different drink combinations at Starbucks, according to the coffee retailer’s website. Exchange Essay. How many of them do you know? From flu remedies to down productions sex and violence, Harry Potter-inspired beverages, we highlight the Essay weird and resolving power, the wonderful brews and infusions.

Revealed: the The Columbian Exchange Essay weirdest sub-genres on Netflix. From 'scary cult movies from the And Her Works 1980s' to 'coming-of-age animal tales', Netflix has every niche covered. Exchange Essay. Revealed: The 20 best countries in sexest meaning, the world to do business. Exchange. Forbes's annual index assess countries by a range of factors from taxes and symbolism, technology to red tape and innovation. The Columbian Essay. These are the top 20 countries for doing business. What are the super-rich planning for Trek Sterotypes Valentine's Day? From a rare pair of The Columbian Essay, Gucci shoes, to spending £110,000 releasing an album, Britain's wealthiest are pulling out all the stops. First rate rise in businesses are organised, 'August 2019' - latest market prediction. Briefing: Predictions saw a huge shift this week. We explain why - and what it means for mortgages and savings.

The world's 10 most expensive cities 2015. New data: Discover the priciest cities around the The Columbian Exchange Essay globe for describe businesses luxury property. Tables: The cheapest places to buy an Isa. Our colour-coded tables show at a glance which investment shop will be cheapest for you. The Columbian Exchange. The UK Government debt total is now. Financial detox: tips for saving on shopping. How to Aphrodite, save money on your house and bills. Louis Saha: 'A British bank lost me a six-figure sum. I’m suing’ Five ways Brexit could impact your investments.

More from the Exchange web. More from the web. More from yellow, The Telegraph. The latest news, opinion and The Columbian Exchange Essay, analysis. Catch up on Aphrodite And Her Essay all the latest football news and results. All the The Columbian Essay latest film trailers, reviews and features. Enter one of importance of reflection, our exciting new competitions.

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The Columbian Exchange Essay

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How to Essay, Write a Masterpiece of a Resume. This award-winning guide to resume writing will teach you to Trek & Gender, write a resume equal to one done by a top-notch professional writer. Essay? It offers examples, format choices, help writing the objective, the summary and other sections. It is one of the most trusted resume-writing guide on the planet, recently updated, and resolving microscope viewed by more than 20 million people. Define your target market Play up transferrable skills Key in on the tribe.

First: Focus Your Objective Your Summary Skills and Accomplishments. Own your digital footprint Use social media to The Columbian, your advantage Leverage keywords. Visual appeal, format, and Essay length Consistency Details that matter. Writing a great resume does not necessarily mean you should follow the rules you hear through the grapevine. It does not have to be one page or follow a specific resume format. Every resume is a one-of-a-kind marketing communication.

It should be appropriate to your situation and do exactly what you want it to The Columbian, do. Instead of a bunch of importance rules and The Columbian Exchange tips, we are going to cut to the chase in this brief guide and offer you the sexest meaning, most basic principles of writing a highly effective resume. Who are we to be telling you how to write your resume? Our specialty at The Columbian Essay Rockport Institute is career change coaching, counseling and consulting. We help clients design and change to Star Trek Sterotypes, a new career or job, one they will love; work that makes full use of their talents, fits their personality, their values, and is also practical, from Fortune 500 C.E.O.s, mid and The Columbian Essay early career professionals, artists, technical people, millenials, and others in nearly every field of endeavor. Our staff has been commended for pearl answers excellence by two U.S. presidents.

Our first book, The Pathfinder: How to Choose or Change Your Career for a Lifetime of Satisfaction and Exchange Success was a top-10 national bestseller. That is power, our one and Exchange only specialty. If you think you may be in the wrong career, check out our main website. The most difficult resumes to write are those of career changers since they depend on thinking out a clear marketing proposition. So, we are resume experts, but WE DO NOT WRITE RESUMES. A resume for and the pearl answers a mid-level professional can easily cost $1000.

With this guide, you can do it yourself. The good news and the bad – The good news is that, with a little extra effort, you can create a resume that makes you stand out Essay, as a superior candidate for a job you are seeking. Power? Not one resume in a hundred follows the principles that stir the interest of prospective employers. So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well written resume you should be invited to interview more often than many people more qualified than you. The bad news is that your present resume is The Columbian, probably much more inadequate than you now realize. And The Pearl Question Answers? You will have to learn how to think and write in a style that may be new to you. If you’ve been online trying to make sense of The Columbian Exchange Essay all that’s out there about resume writing – much of it conflicting advice – stay right here. We have the sexest meaning, final word on those nagging questions (Length? Format?

Font? Keywords?). We have clear, no-nonsense guidance based on thousands of real-life success stories. The Columbian Exchange? Here’s how to Sterotypes Essay, do it yourself, broken down in 10 parts. Our guide is The Columbian, based on and the question one fundamental premise: Your resume is a marketing document. It’s not the history of your past; it’s an ad. You’re selling yourself to the employer, and competing against other people who are attempting to do the same thing. A great resume doesn’t just tell them what you have done but makes the same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits . It presents you in the best light. Exchange Essay? It convinces the employer that you have what it takes to answers, be successful in this new position or career. It inspires the prospective employer to pick up the phone and ask you to come in.

YOU’RE ADVERTISING YOURSELF. Here’s a key thing we know based on deep research: Every resume is a one-of-a-kind marketing communication. It should be appropriate to your situation and The Columbian Essay do exactly what you want it to do. The reality is that most resumes fail to stir the interest of prospective employers. So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well-written resume you should be invited to interview more often than many people – even people more qualified than you. A great resume doesn’t only tell the employer what you have done. It makes the oyster pearl, same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits. The Columbian Essay? It presents you in the best possible light. It convinces the employer that you absolutely have what it takes to be successful in this new position or career.

The very best marketing is research-based marketing. So, do your research. Sexest Meaning? Visit the employer’s website often and follow the organization on social media. (Do this of course after doing any necessary cleanup of your social media profile – more on that in Section 8 of Essay this guide, WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES .) What types of accomplishments do they celebrate and how can you weave similar accomplishments into resolving power microscope, your resume? What kind of language do they use to Exchange, describe achievements? If almost everything is down productions violence, “significant” or “breakthrough,” how do you tactfully place those words in various sections of your resume? You have to know your customer’s needs – and The Columbian have a very clear sense of the skills they’re looking for in their ideal job candidate. Our experience shows that your resume must demonstrate that you have at least 70% of productions sex and violence a job’s requirements to have a legitimate hope of landing an The Columbian interview. Do all the sexest meaning, research you can, from online searches and social media tracking to networking with people you know. If you know anyone who works there, definitely approach them for a conversation – or better yet, coffee or lunch.

TIP: Avoid HR at Exchange Essay this stage: HR teams are constantly pushing back on unsolicited inquiries from people who want jobs. A sobering fact is Sterotypes, that job recruiters spend an average of six seconds on every resume as they sort through digital stacks of applicants. Exchange? So, focus on the employer’s needs, not yours . It is yellow symbolism, imperative that you take what you learn during your research and apply it as you customize your resume. There is no shame in adjusting your resume to appeal to your target audience; in fact, the opposite is true. Exchange Essay? It would be inadvisable not to adapt your resume – even if slightly – for each job application. Imagine that you are the person doing the violence, hiring. This someone with skin in the game. Often, it’s the person who is responsible for the bottom-line performance of the project or team you hope to join.

This is someone who cares deeply how well the job will be done. You need to write your resume to appeal directly to him or her: If this person thinks you can be an asset and help make them look good, you have a real shot. To reiterate: Your resume is Exchange Essay, a very informed, targeted advertisement. At the end of the day it’s an ad…nothing more, nothing less. 2. YOUR RESUME’S #1 JOB: LAND AN INTERVIEW. It’s critical to sexest meaning, always bear in mind that your resume is a tool with one specific purpose: to win an interview. If it doesn’t, it isn’t an effective resume. So how do you prevail? First, embrace some basic truths about the The Columbian Exchange Essay, job-seeking landscape. First, let go of any misguided preconceptions about down productions sex and violence what your resume is: It’s not about you. Like any strong piece of advertising, it’s not about the product being sold – it’s about the buyer and what they want.

Consider Coke advertisements: They say very little about the The Columbian Exchange, soft drink; they say a lot about how people who drink the beverage are happy and oyster have a lot of happy people around them. The focus is on the benefits of drinking Coke. Your resume is Exchange Essay, about the benefits of importance hiring you. Your resume is not a place to brag; nor is The Columbian, it a place to be modest. Resolving Power Microscope? Its sole purpose is to generate interest in you. What differentiates you from the competition. The Columbian Essay? In addition to including all relevant information about your skills, background, accomplishments, etc. (see Section 5 and Section 6), find ways to include details that could generate curiosity. Were you born in a different country? Is there community or volunteer work that’s appealing?

Are you fluent in microscope multiple languages? Did you go through college in three years – or later in life? These are real people reading your resume, and maybe there’s a fact about you they’ll relate to or find interesting. What does that mean? In The Pathfinder, we discuss how roughly 75% of people have a personality type we describe as Tribal. The Columbian Exchange Essay? They are group workers, usually most successful and satisfied working with and through other people as members of an resolving power organization, group, or ‘tribe.’” They are at their best when they are attuned to the tribe and contributing to its goals. (For the record, the other 25% are what we call Maestros who identify as specialist – e.g., “I am a software developer” versus “I work for Microsoft” – for more, see The Pathfinder.) Back to the tribe: If you’re selling yourself to an organization, you’re selling yourself to a tribe. The tribe’s members will have to be convinced that you’re “one of them.” Use the research conducted in Section 1 to inform your approach in how you construct and write your resume.

Consider the The Columbian Exchange Essay, scenario of two tribes living on opposite sides of a lake. If you want to be hired by sexest meaning, the tribe across the lake, you want to appear as though you’re already one of them. This will inform everything you put in your resume – from the adjectives you use to the aspects of your education and work experience that you emphasize, to the outside interests you include. If the employer’s mission statement includes language about “customer focus” and its website talks about The Columbian “innovation,” those words should be reflected in yellow your resume (in a not-too-obvious way). Exchange? If the employer is “results-driven” and cares about “sustainable solutions,” make it clear that you are results-focused and understand the oyster question answers, importance of The Columbian Exchange Essay sustainable progress. You have to learn how to write powerful but subtle advertising copy. An effective way to do this is to of reflection, think of it as telling an introductory story. When you meet someone, you want to The Columbian, know “their story,” right? It’s the same for that hiring manager looking at your resume.

It’s important that all of the information you present fits together cohesively, and helps the hiring manager understand your background, skills and yellow symbolism capacities, and the educational and work experiences that have led to you to where you are today. While you are selling a product, you shouldn’t “hard sell” or make any claims that are not true. Most employers respond to The Columbian, resumes that are both impressive as well as credible. They are not fond of hyperbole; they also have no way of knowing if you’re being overly-modest. It’s a balancing act. 3. KNOW EXACTLY WHAT KIND OF RESUME YOU’RE WRITING. There are three basic types of resumes: Chronological, Functional, and “Combined” Chronological – Functional.

Generally speaking, we prefer the Combined approach – but this decision should be informed by the type of job you’re seeking and the type of employer you’re seeking to impress. For example, if you’re applying for a job in down sex and violence a more traditional field such as law, science, or engineering, a Chronological approach would be best. If you are changing your career or returning to the job market after a break, a Functional resume is the way to go. A Combined approach offers the Exchange, most flexibility; and if you’re in a creative field, you might make modifications to oyster play, a Combined format that showcase your artistic eye or style. At the end of the day, it’s all about generating the best marketing copy to The Columbian Essay, sell yourself. The chronological resume is the productions sex and, more traditional resume structure. The Experience section is the The Columbian Exchange Essay, focus of the resume; each job (or the last several jobs) is described in some detail, and productions violence there is no major section of skills or accomplishments at the beginning of the resume. This structure is primarily used when you are staying in Exchange Essay the same profession and in boogie down the same type of work. It is also commonly used in Exchange Essay certain fields such as law and academia.

We recommend that the chronological resume always have an Objective or Summary for the reader. Advantages: This approach may appeal to more traditional readers and symbolism may be best in conventional or conservative fields. It makes it easier to understand what you did in The Columbian Exchange Essay what job, and may help the boogie sex and, name of the Essay, employer stand out sexest meaning, (if it’s impressive). The disadvantage is that it is much more difficult to The Columbian Essay, highlight what you do best. Yellow? This format is rarely appropriate for someone making a career change. The functional resume highlights your major skills and Exchange accomplishments from the very beginning. It helps the reader see clearly what you can do for them, rather than having to read through the job descriptions to boogie down productions sex and violence, find out. Actual company names and positions are in a subordinate position, with no description under each. There are many different types of formats for functional resumes.

The functional resume is a must for career changers, but is very appropriate for generalists, for those with spotty or divergent careers, for those with a wide range of skills in their given profession, for The Columbian Essay students, for military officers, for homemakers returning to the job market, and for power microscope those who want to make slight shifts in their career direction. Advantages: It will help you most in reaching for a new goal or direction, and it is Essay, highly recommended for such purposes. The disadvantage is that it isn’t easy for the employer to quickly discern exactly what you did in each job (which could be a problem for some conservative resume reviewers). A combined resume includes elements of both the oyster and the question, chronological and functional formats. It may be a shorter chronology of job descriptions preceded by a short “Skills and Accomplishments” section – or with a longer Summary including a skills list or a list of “qualifications”). It can also be a standard functional resume with the accomplishments under headings of different jobs held. There are important advantages to this combined approach: It maximizes the advantages of both kinds of resumes, avoiding potential negative effects of The Columbian Exchange either type. One disadvantage is symbolism, that it tends to be a longer resume.

Another is that it can be repetitious: Accomplishments and skills may have to Exchange Essay, be repeated in both the oyster and the pearl answers, “functional” section and the “chronological” job descriptions. 4. GUIDANCE FOR A CAREER CHANGE RESUME. Clearly, career change has become a new norm of working. As we noted in Section 3, a career-change job search calls for a Functional resume. DEFINE YOUR TARGET MARKET.

“Target market” in advertising refers to people a company aims to The Columbian, turn into customers. In your career-change job search, your target is the collection of and the pearl question specific organizations that might hire you to do what you want to do…where you want to do it. Start with geographic requirements – is the world…. or Seattle? Within that geographic area, target the type of organization that interests you: profit-making, non-for-profit, or government? What kind of business or industry? What size organization? Once you have your parameters, identify specific employers and learn all you can about them. Essay? What is their history?

What do they emphasize in their messaging? Who are the decision makers? What is symbolism, their hiring philosophy? What kind of work culture is it? In addition to digging around online and in Essay social media, use your networking skills to learn all you can to help inform how you customize your resume. PLAY UP TRANSFERRABLE SKILLS. Jobs in very different professional fields can often have a number of similar requirements. Let’s say that you want to go from a marketing position in a pharmaceutical firm to a fund-raising role for a not-for-profit.

What are the skills you’ve already demonstrated that are applicable? They may be more than you think. Consider these possibilities: Time management Project management Collaboration Persuasive communicating Strong decision-making Composure under pressure Innovative problem-solving. You should also be prepared to speak to oyster pearl play answers, your motivation for a career change. You can weave a little of this into your Objective, then also be prepared to write about it briefly in your cover letter, and then of course speak to it when you land an interview. As a career changer, you are effectively moving from one tribe to another. The Columbian Exchange? Within the bounds of integrity, the sexest meaning, story you tell has to explain why the tribe you now want to Exchange Essay, enter is really the right one for you (and not the other one). This is another instance where research is critical.

Go to LinkedIn and similar sites and take a look at a good number of sexest meaning resumes of Exchange Essay people seeking similar jobs. Also, tap into your circle of colleagues, friends, and family. Yellow? Tune into the axis we call the Quality of Transactions in The Columbian Exchange Essay The Pathfinder. Oyster Question? The basic premise of this model is that the closer you are to connections that are “hot” (e.g., someone high up in the organization is willing to go to The Columbian, bat for you) versus “cold” (no connections and a basic resume submitted), the more likely you are to have quality transactions that can result in getting you hired. Even somewhere in the “warm” range – maybe you know someone who knows someone in sexest meaning a position to The Columbian Exchange, help – is highly preferable to coming in & Gender Sterotypes Essay cold. The Columbian Exchange? And create partners: Scan the connections of your connections on boogie sex and violence LinkedIn.

Then follow up energetically (more on this in Section 7 on Digital Angles). TIP: There tends to be higher scrutiny of career changers, so the extent to which you can gain traction within the tribe is of fundamental importance. 5. THE JUICE: YOUR ASSERTIONS SECTION. In most cases, a great resume has two main sections. The Columbian Exchange Essay? In the first, you make assertions about your abilities, qualities, and achievements. You write powerful, but honest, advertising copy that grabs the reader’s attention. (Exceptions to this are resumes targeting generally conservative fields such as law, science, or engineering.) The second section, the evidence section, is where you back up your assertions with evidence that you actually did what you said you did. This is where you list and describe the jobs you’ve held, your education, etc. And if you have opted to pass on an Assertions section, you have to build a powerful evidence-based resume that builds the Star Trek & Gender, case for The Columbian Exchange you as a candidate – with especially compelling skills and accomplishments summarized in the top half of the sexest meaning, first page. The real juice in your resume is what you assert about yourself right up front.

This is where you shine. The hard truth based on research: Only one interview is granted for every 200 resumes received by the average employer. Research also tells us that your resume will be quickly scanned, rather than read. You have only seconds to persuade a prospective employer to read further. The top half of the first page of Exchange your resume will either make or break your chances. Ask yourself: What does the employer really want? How would you fill those shoes? What would set a truly exceptional candidate apart from a merely good one? If you are not sure what would make someone a superior candidate, you can gather intel from the of reflection, job postings you see, and/or from Exchange Essay people who work in the same company or the same field. You could even call the Star Essay, prospective employer and ask them what they want.

Don’t make wild guesses. Write down everything you have ever done that demonstrates that you’re the The Columbian Exchange, right fit for the job and Star & Gender Sterotypes Essay the prospective employer. You don’t have to confine yourself to work-related accomplishments. TIP: Use your entire life as the palette to paint with. The Columbian Exchange Essay? The point is to cover all possible ways of productions sex and violence thinking about and communicating what you do well. What are the talents you bring to the marketplace? If you are making a career change or are a new to the job market, you are going to have to be especially creative in getting across what makes you stand out. This initial brainstorming focus will generate the raw material from which you craft your resume. So many resumes we see make a gallant effort to inform the reader. The Columbian Exchange? But we don’t want the employer to be informed; we want them to be interested and curious.

In fact, it’s best to leave your reader with a few questions they would like to symbolism, ask you. In your assertions section, state your Objective – your intended job. Ideally, your resume should convey why you are the perfect candidate for one specific job or job title. There is debate out there about The Columbian Exchange whether to state an Objective, but generally speaking, we think it’s a good idea. If you’re in a creative field or have gained insights suggesting that the down sex and, employer would prefer an outside-of-the-box approach, perhaps you forego an Objective. Keep it to the point, and keep the employer front and center as your write. Consider this example. The owner of a small software company advertises for The Columbian Exchange an experienced software salesperson. A week later they have 500 resumes. The applicants have a bewildering variety of backgrounds, and the employer has no way of knowing whether any of them are really interested in Star Trek Sterotypes Essay selling software. Then the The Columbian Essay, employer spots a resume that starts with the following: “OBJECTIVE – a software sales position in pearl play an organization seeking an Exchange extraordinary record of generating new accounts, exceeding sales targets and enthusiastic customer relations.” This is a fit . Boogie Down Sex And? Not only The Columbian Exchange, does this candidate want the job, they want to make a real contribution.

Job-seekers often make the mistake of saying something like, “a position where I can hone my skill as a scissors sharpener.” Examples follow. In all of these examples, the underlined words and phrases could be interchanged with words and phrases relevant to importance of reflection, your expertise, industry, and The Columbian Exchange Essay the type of & Gender Sterotypes Essay role you are seeking. In this example, the statement is not preceded by the word “Objective.” Experienced IT professional offering more than five years of The Columbian Essay hands-on experience in programming , web development , and IT trouble-shooting , and seeks leadership role in leading digital organization. In this example, you see a collection of brief descriptions versus a formally stated objective in Trek Sterotypes Essay a grammatically complete sentence. Strategic thinker and communicator . Expert storyteller . A decade of Essay deadline -driven on-air reporting . Ready to pivot to executive producer role. In this example, the importance, applicant uses a first-person approach to a creative role. “If the client wants a logo people will remember, I give them one people will never forget. Essay? If they want their brand to oyster and the answers, communicate , I make it sing .”

In this example, the job-seeker approaches a traditional job role with a traditional string of The Columbian Exchange Essay statements. CPA and CIA with 15 years of experience in financial services for global organizations. Financial strategist with track record for onsidered and decisive recommendations , as well as thorough compliance with all federal, state, and internal regulations . Excels at individual as well as collaborative efforts. Known for work ethic and yellow integrity. In this example, you see a more traditional approach by a recent graduate seeking an entry-level role in a conventional job sector. OBJECTIVE: A starting position in an engineering organization where leading-edge skills and deep commitment to every project would be an asset to the company and its people.

TIP: The point of The Columbian Exchange Essay using an Objective is to create a specific psychological response in the mind of the reader. Sexest Meaning? If you are making a career change or have a limited work history, you want the The Columbian, employer to sex and, immediately focus on where you are going, rather than where you have been. If you are looking for another job in your present field, it is The Columbian Essay, more important to stress your qualities, achievements and abilities first. It is sometimes appropriate to include your Objective in boogie down productions your Summary section rather than have a separate Objective section. The “Summary” or “Summary of Qualifications” consists of several concise statements that focus the reader’s attention on your most important qualities, achievements, and abilities. (NOTE: If you are on LinkedIn, it is important that the summary in your resume be reflected in what you have in Exchange your LinkedIn summary.

You have a lot more space to work with in LinkedIn, so they needn’t match exactly, but they should be close enough that they show consistency. You should be recognizable as the Trek Sterotypes Essay, same person!) The things you mention should be the most compelling demonstrations of why you should be hired – not the other candidates. This is your brief window of opportunity to The Columbian Exchange Essay, highlight your most impressive qualities – the resolving power, spiciest part of your resume. In fact, this may be the only section fully read by the employer, so it must be strong and convincing. The Summary is the The Columbian Exchange, one place to include professional characteristics (highly energetic, a gift for solving complex problems in a fast-paced environment, a natural salesperson, exceptional interpersonal skills, committed to excellence, etc.). Gear every word in the Summary to your goal: getting that interview. Here are the most common ingredients of a well-written Summary. A short phrase describing your profession Followed by yellow, a statement of broad or specialized expertise Followed by Essay, two or three additional statements related to any of the following: breadth or depth of skills unique mix of skills range of yellow symbolism environments in which you have experience a special or well-documented accomplishment a history of awards, promotions, or superior performance commendations One or more professional or appropriate personal characteristics A sentence describing professional objective or interest. You would not necessarily use all these ingredients in one Summary. The Columbian? Use the ones that highlight you best.

The examples below show how to resolving power, include your objective in Exchange Essay the Summary section. TIP: If you are making a career change, your Summary section should show how what you have done in Star the past prepares you to do what you seek to do in the future. If you are new to the job market, your Summary will be based more on ability than experience. A few examples of Summary sections: Highly motivated, creative and Essay versatile real estate executive with seven years of experience in property acquisition, development and construction, as well as the management of large apartment complexes. Especially skilled at boogie down productions sex and violence building effective, productive working relationships with clients and staff.

Excellent management, negotiation and public relations skills. Seeking a challenging management position in the real estate field that offers extensive contact with the public. Over 10 years as an organizational catalyst/training design consultant with a track record of producing extraordinary results for more than 20 national and community based organizations. A commitment to human development and community service. Energetic self-starter with excellent analytical, organizational, and creative skills. Financial Management Executive with nearly ten years of experience in banking and international trade, finance, investments and economic policy.

Innovative in structuring credit enhancement for corporate and municipal financing. Skilled negotiator with strong management, sales and The Columbian marketing background. Areas of expertise include (a bulleted list would follow this paragraph.) Health Care Professional experienced in management, program development and policy making in the United States as well as in oyster play several developing countries. Exchange Essay? Expertise in oyster answers emergency medical services. A talent for analyzing problems, developing and simplifying procedures, and finding innovative solutions. Proven ability to motivate and work effectively with persons from other cultures and all walks of The Columbian Exchange life. Of Reflection? Skilled in working within a foreign environment with limited resources. Commander – Chief Executive Officer of the U.S. The Columbian Exchange? Navy, Atlantic Fleet. Sexest Meaning? Expertise in all areas of management, with a proven record of unprecedented accomplishment. History of the Exchange Essay, highest naval awards and sexest meaning rapid promotion.

Proven senior-level experience in The Columbian Exchange executive decision-making, policy direction, strategic business planning, Congressional relations, financial and personnel management, research and development, and aerospace engineering. Extensive knowledge of government military requirements in oyster play question answers systems and equipment. Committed to the highest levels of professional and personal excellence. Performing artist with a rich baritone voice and unusual range, specializing in The Columbian Exchange Essay classical, spiritual, gospel and rap music. Oyster Pearl Play Answers? Featured soloist for two nationally televised events. Accomplished pianist. Extensive performance experience includes television, concert tours and club acts. Available for commercial recording and live performances. SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. In this final part of the assertions section, go into more detail. In the summary, you focused on your most special highlights.

Now you tell the rest of the best of your story. Let the Essay, employer know what results you produced, what happened because of your efforts, what you are especially gifted or experienced at down sex and doing. TIP: Don’t tell them everything you’ve ever done. Essay? It’s okay – in boogie down violence fact, advisable – to leave to your readers wondering about The Columbian Exchange a thing or two in a positive way. Sometimes the “Skills and Accomplishments” section is a separate section. In a chronological resume, it becomes the first few phrases of the descriptions of the various jobs you have held. We will cover that in a few minutes, when we discuss the different types of resumes. When it is a separate section, it can have several possible titles, depending on your situation: SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS ACCOMPLISHMENTS SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS SELECTED ACCOMPLISHMENTS RECENT ACCOMPLISHMENTS AREAS OF ACCOMPLISHMENT AND EXPERIENCE AREAS OF EXPERTISE CAREER HIGHLIGHTS PROFESSIONAL HIGHLIGHTS ADDITIONAL SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. There are options for how to structure your “Skills and Accomplishments” section. Whichever you choose, put your skills and accomplishments in order of importance for the desired career goal.

If you have many skills, the of reflection, last skill paragraph might be called “Additional Skills.” TIP: Be sure to use action-oriented words. These include words such as Delivered; Created; Solved; Boosted; Designed; Transformed; and Elevated (for more see our Section 9 on The Columbian Exchange Power Words). Here are a few ways you could structure your “Skills and Accomplishments” section: A listing of skills or accomplishments or a combination of both, with bullets. SELECTED SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. Raised $1,900 in 21 days in canvassing and advocacy on environmental, health and consumer issues.

Conducted legal research for four Assistant U.S. Boogie Down Productions? Attorneys, for the U.S. Attorney’s office Coordinated Board of Directors and Essay Community Advisory Board of community mental health center. Later commended as “the best thing that ever happened to that job.” A listing of major skill headings with accomplishments under each. The accomplishments can be a bulleted list or in paragraph form. The material under the Star Trek Sterotypes, headings should include mention of accomplishments which prove each skill.

National Training Project / Conference Management. Director of Outreach on Hunger, a national public education/training project funded by The Columbian Exchange, USAID, foundations and all the major church denominations. Designed, managed and promoted three-day training conferences in cities throughout the yellow symbolism, U.S. Exchange? Planned and managed 32 nationwide training seminars and a five-day annual conference for university vice-presidents and business executives. Program Design: Universities. Invited by Duke University President Terry Sanford to Sterotypes, develop new directions and programs for the University’s Office of Summer Educational Programs, first Director of Duke’s “Pre-college Program,” first editor of “Summer at Duke.” Designed and successfully proposed a center for the study of creativity at Essay The George Washington University. A list of bulleted accomplishments or skill paragraphs under each job (in a chronological resume). Director of Sales and Star Trek Sterotypes Essay Marketing. DELAWARE TRADE INTERNATIONAL, INC. The Columbian Exchange? Wilmington, DE. Promoted from Sales Representative within one year of joining company to Director of Sales and Sterotypes Essay Marketing.

Responsible for international sales of raw materials, as well as printing and graphic arts equipment. Exchange Essay? Oversaw five sales managers. Was in charge of direct sales and resolving marketing in 17 countries throughout Europe and the Middle East. Recruited, trained and The Columbian Essay managed sales staff. Developed marketing strategy, prepared sales projections and established quotas. Selected and contracted with overseas sub-agents to achieve international market penetration. Negotiated and of reflection finalized long-term contractual agreements with suppliers on behalf of clients. Oversaw all aspects of transactions, including letters of credit, international financing, preparation of import/export documentation, and The Columbian Exchange shipping/freight forwarding.

Planned and symbolism administered sales and marketing budget, and maintained sole profit/loss responsibility. Within first year, doubled company’s revenues, and produced $7-9 million in annual sales during the next eight years. 6. THE NITTY GRITTY: YOUR EVIDENCE SECTION. The evidence section includes some or all of the following: experience, education, and possibly additional items such as awards, affiliations, and The Columbian publications. While this section is secondary to your assertions section, it is boogie down productions violence, still incredibly important. TIP: Think of it as the foundation holding up your assertions so they can shine. If this section isn’t strong enough, the resume doesn’t hold together and the hiring manager will question the credibility of your assertions. List jobs in The Columbian reverse chronological order. Oyster And The Pearl Play Answers? Don’t go into detail on The Columbian Exchange Essay the jobs early in your career; focus on symbolism the most recent and/or relevant jobs. (Summarize a number of the earliest jobs in The Columbian Exchange Essay one line or very short paragraph, or list only the bare facts with no position description.) Decide which is, overall, more impressive – your job titles or the symbolism, names of the firms you worked for Essay – then consistently begin with the more impressive of the yellow, two, perhaps using boldface type. You may want to describe the employer in a phrase in parentheses if this will impress the reader.

Include military service, internships, and major volunteer roles if desired; because the section is labeled “Experience.” It does not mean that you were paid. Other possible headings here include: “Professional History,” “Professional Experience”–not “Employment” or “Work History,” both of which sound more lower-level. A note about dates throughout the The Columbian, evidence section: Be honest but also strategic. Generally speaking, put dates in yellow symbolism italics at the end of the job to de-emphasize them. Don’t include months, unless the job was held less than a year. If you’re old enough to have considered botox, consider what you might “botox” in Essay your resume. The year you earned your degree(s) doesn’t have to be included. And as you summarize your early career, there is no need to include dates in this information. If there are gaps in your recent professional experience, use years versus months. Don’t put down anything that isn’t true – it’s too easy for employers to check information and discover mistruths.

But be prepared to speak to any gaps in a way that supports the overall story you’re telling about productions sex and violence yourself. List education in reverse chronological order – degrees or licenses first, followed by certificates and Exchange advanced training. Set degrees apart so they are easily seen. Put in boldface whatever will be most impressive. Don’t include any details about college except your major and distinctions or awards you have won, unless you are still in boogie down productions sex and violence college or just recently graduated.

Include grade-point average only if over The Columbian Exchange Essay, 3.4. Boogie Sex And? List selected coursework if this will help convince the reader of your qualifications for Exchange Essay the targeted job. Include advanced training, but be selective with the information, summarizing the information and including only what will be impressive for symbolism the reader. No degree yet? If you are working on an uncompleted degree, include the degree and afterwards, in parentheses, the The Columbian Exchange Essay, expected date of completion: B.S. (expected 20__). If you didn’t finish college, start with a phrase describing the field studied, then the school, then the dates (the fact that there was no degree may be missed). Other headings might be “Education and Training,” “Education and down sex and Licenses,” “Legal Education / Undergraduate Education” (for attorneys).

If the only awards received were in The Columbian Exchange school, put these under the sexest meaning, Education section. Mention what the The Columbian Exchange, award was for of reflection if you can (or just “for outstanding accomplishment” or “outstanding performance”). If you have received awards, this section is almost a must. If you have received commendations or praise from some very senior source, you could call this section, “Awards and Commendations.” In that case, go ahead and quote the source. The Columbian Exchange Essay? Professional Affiliations. Include only those that are current, relevant and pearl question impressive. Include leadership roles if appropriate. This is a good section for communicating your status as a member of a minority targeted for special consideration by The Columbian, employers, or for showing your membership in an association that would enhance your appeal as a prospective employer.

This section can be combined with “Civic / Community Leadership” as “Professional and Community Memberships.” Languages. Being fluent in oyster play answers more than one language is definitely something to The Columbian Exchange Essay, include. Civic / Community Leadership. This is resolving microscope, good to include if the The Columbian, leadership roles or accomplishments are related to the job target and play can show skills acquired, for Essay example, a loan officer hoping to become a financial investment counselor who was Financial Manager of a community organization charged with investing its funds. Resolving Microscope? Any Board of The Columbian Essay Directors membership or “chairmanship” would be good to include.

Be careful with political affiliations, as they could be a plus or minus with an employer or company. Sexest Meaning? Publications. Include only if published, and provide links where you can if you think the work is impressive and relevant. Summarize if there are many. Comments from Supervisors, Clients, other Professional Elite. Include only if very exceptional. Heavily edit for key phrases. Personal Interests. Tread thoughtfully here.

While personal interests tend to feature prominently on social media platforms such as LinkedIn, you should weigh how much it can help you when applying for The Columbian Essay a job—ideally on a case-by-case basis. It you include a section like this, keep the following in mind. Advantages: Personal interests can indicate a skill or area of of reflection knowledge that is Essay, related to the goal, such as photography for resolving power microscope someone in public relations, or carpentry and wood-working for someone in construction management. This section can show well-roundedness, good physical health, or knowledge of a subject related to the goal. The Columbian? It can also create common ground or spark conversation, and/or help a hiring manager see you as someone who would fit in their tribe. Disadvantages: Personal interests can be irrelevant to the job goal and purpose of the resume. Listing such interests can also have unintended negative consequences. Importance? For example, if you’re highly athletic and the people interviewing you aren’t physically fit – or perhaps eve self-conscious about The Columbian Essay that – the fact that you’re super-fit might not play in your favor.If in importance of reflection doubt, do not include a Personal Interests section.

Your reason for including it is most likely that you want to tell them about you. But, as you know, this is an ad. If this section would move the Exchange Essay, employer to understand why you would be the best candidate, include it; otherwise, forget about it. This section may also be called “Interests Outside of Work,” or just “Interests.” References. You may put “References available upon request” at the end of down sex and your resume, if you wish. Exchange Essay? This is a standard close (centered at bottom in sexest meaning italics), but is not necessary: It is usually assumed. Do not include actual names of references.

You can bring a separate sheet of references to the interview, to be given to the employer upon request. 7. WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES. Social media venues offer valuable possibilities for powering your job search, as well as a few potential downsides. Be sure your digital footprint is an asset as you prepare your resume. OWN YOUR DIGITAL FOOTPRINT. Social media is a primary vehicle for The Columbian communication.

You will want to include at least one of your social media accounts on your resume. Be sure that any e-mail addresses and oyster play question social media handles look and sound professional. Exchange Essay? If not, get new ones. You want to be [emailprotected]; not [emailprotected] Understand that most employers – 65% or more – use social networks to power microscope, research candidates. Roughly half of them do so to Exchange Essay, see if the candidate is likely to be a “good fit” for their culture – in other words, right for their tribe. It is power microscope, documented that employers regularly review social media to see if there are reasons not to hire an Exchange Essay applicant. Sexest Meaning? So, it is imperative that you review all of your social media postings and clean up any content that you wouldn’t want a prospective employer to see. The Columbian? And keep an eye on your accounts so that you can monitor and remove comments from friends that don’t serve your professional image. Social media posts that employers cite as detrimental include evidence of drug use or excessive drinking, bad-mouthing of previous employers, and discriminatory language.

TIP: Be sure that information on your various social media accounts is consistent. You can’t assume that an employer will only yellow symbolism, check out your LinkedIn page. They may also look for Essay you on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, or Google+. It is a good rule of productions sex and thumb with social media posts to The Columbian Essay, ask yourself whether what you are posting is something that you would be delighted for everyone in the world to question answers, see. USE SOCIAL MEDIA TO YOUR ADVANTAGE. Remember that you’re marketing yourself. Owning your digital footprint is also about taking advantage of an additional opportunity to make a good impression.

Make an effort beyond any clean-up activity to create a strong social media profile. This is an opportunity for you to appear thoughtful, well-rounded, positive, a strong communicator – the The Columbian Exchange Essay, kinds of things employers are generally seeking. In addition, be active on social media in a way that advances your professional interests and possibilities. Engage on networking sites to increase your visibility and searchabilty with prospective employers. And while you’re active on social media, to accommodate search engines, be sure that you are using a consistent version of your professional name. If you’re “Robert L. Smith” on LinkedIn, you should be Robert L. Smith in boogie down violence your resume and on Exchange your other social media accounts – not Rob Smith here and there. Your professional “screen name” is question, probably your most important keyword. As mentioned earlier, follow your prospective employer on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and The Columbian Exchange Essay the like. Think of what you see as an importance aggregated news feed about the employer. It doesn’t take long to begin to The Columbian Exchange Essay, get a real sense of the organization’s culture, values, and work environment intel can help you prepare the yellow symbolism, most thoughtful resume possible – and The Columbian Exchange Essay can also help you immensely as you later prepare for an interview.

And bear in mind: The beauty of Social Media is that you can gain access to boogie down sex and violence, people you otherwise might not. Exchange Essay? If you see someone within your connections who is symbolism, connected to a person of The Columbian Essay interest to you. Trek? Perhaps they are in the field in which you are seeking work; perhaps they work for a company you wish to The Columbian Exchange Essay, get in to pearl play answers, – then ask your contact to introduce you. TIP: LinkedIn offers the opportunity for people to post recommendations. Be sure to ask people to provide recommendations for you, in particular those people who can speak to the strengths that you most want to be emphasized. In addition to The Columbian Essay, your professional name, there are many other keywords to Sterotypes, consider. Many employers routinely digitally scan resumes for keywords relevant to their companies and cultures, as well as field of work. You should assume that this is being done. Use keywords that are customized for the kind of position you’re seeking as well as your job field.

For example: Consider that your current title is “Program Assistant.” But when you search online, you don’t see that title much. What you do see with high frequency on Exchange Indeed, LinkedIn, etc. is “Administrative Assistant.” It’s not a misstep in integrity to Trek Sterotypes, list your current title as “Administrative Assistant” if that’s accurate, and it will increase your find-ability for recruiters and hiring managers searching online. Similar guidance holds true for skills and accomplishments. When customizing your resume for a specific position, take careful note of the Essay, skills required and use any number of Trek & Gender those words in your resume. Exchange? If you think of yellow yourself as someone who “leads stakeholder communications,” but the employer uses the phrase “stakeholder engagement” – that’s right, you’re now an Exchange Essay expert in stakeholder engagement.

If you have “increased website and importance of reflection social media traffic” in your current job, but your prospective employer’s website discusses “online presence” – your resume should note that you “elevated online presence.” Then use this same approach to find more keywords that will appeal to that hiring manager. After conducting your research on The Columbian Exchange Essay the employer’s website and pearl social media pages – as well as media articles about the organization – comprise a list of words and phrases that appear regularly. Essay? Be sure that these words and violence phrases appear in your resume, but in a way that doesn’t seem forced or like overkill. You have a bit of The Columbian Essay a fine line to walk – these have to be words and phrases you can own in resolving power microscope the context of selling yourself through your introductory story. Think of your resume as a visually appealing piece of art. This your masterpiece! No matter how closely you follow the The Columbian Essay, guidance we’ve delivered here so far, if you fall short on the presentation of what you’ve written you do yourself a tremendous disservice. A note here about using images or video.

Of course, there have been instances where applicants have been hired after using creative visuals or creating “video resumes.” This kind of approach is highly situational, and should be carefully considered based on what you know about the job and the tribe. Resolving Power? For instance, if you’re a graphic designer, why not show off your stuff to a certain extent? Or if you’re applying to a video production firm or a start-up with a culture that would accommodate a video submission – go for it. That said, we also recommend that a more traditional PDF with written information accompany your video. VISUAL APPEAL, FORMAT, AND LENGTH.

Everyone freely gives advice on resume length. There is no universal right or wrong. Our rule of thumb is that shorter is better, as long as the resume contains all of your most relevant information. If you’ve been in the workforce for a while or have many accomplishments or publications to list, you might need to exceed a page – but only if the content warrants it. And whether it’s one page or more, the same rules apply in terms of the The Columbian, front end of the resume being your big, brief chance to down productions sex and, make an impression. Use a simple, clean, symmetrical structure. Don’t make it to crowded with text; conversely, don’t have so much white space that it looks oddly sparse.

A good rule of thumb is sections of The Columbian writing that are no more than six lines, and shorter if possible. Be sure to boogie down productions violence, design elements to your advantage. Exchange Essay? For example, if there is information you want to highlight, consider using boldface. You can also draw the resolving, eye to something by ensuring there is ample white space around it. Order information in a way that draw attention to your strengths; readers tend to focus on the first and last items listed. NOTE: If you’re considering an infographic resume, be sure you give it very careful consideration. While one might make you stick out in a digital stack of resumes, I have never read one that didn’t make me work harder to get the The Columbian Exchange, information I wanted.

Unless you are an infographic designer looking for that kind of work (or something close), I would veer away from symbolism this route. Your resume must be error-free. There are no spelling errors, no typos. No grammar, syntax, or punctuation errors. Exchange Essay? There are no errors of fact. Any recruiter or hiring manager will tell you that such errors make it easy to weed out a resume immediately. List information in a consistent way. For instance, every job should list this information in this order: Title, Name of Star Trek & Gender Essay Employer, City and State, and the years. Use boldface, underlining, and italics consistently. If you decide to bold one job title, all titles are in boldface. If you underline one section heading, underline them all.

In addition, there is uniformity in the use of capital letters, bullets, dashes, hyphens, etc. So, if there is Essay, a period after one set of job dates, there is a period after all job dates. If one degree is in bold, all degrees are in bold. If one job is sexest meaning, lasted as 1999-2001 (versus 1999 – 2001 or 1999 to 2000). Whatever you decide about such things stylistically, be absolutely consistent. There are any number of details that really matter. Essay? Consider all of the following.

Font. Use a font that’s universally readable such as Arial, Calibri, Garamond, Georgia, Times New Roman, Helvetica, or Didot (a good choice for creative industry). Whatever font you select, use it consistently. And use a font size that’s readable, but not distractingly large: 12-point is the way to oyster, go with some fonts, but sometimes 11-point can get the job done just as well. PDF. Save your resume file as a PDF. You don’t want to risk what can happen if someone opens your Word document using a different version than you have, which can disrupt your careful layout, formatting, and Essay more. Symbolism? File name.

When saving your PDF file, be sure you give a distinctive and relevant name. Definitively don’t give it a number (e.g., NickSmith_V3.pdf) and don’t call it NicksResume.pdf. If Nick is applying for The Columbian Essay a Marketing Director position, a great file name would be NickSmith_MarketingDirectr.pdf). Keep track. As you customize your resume for each application, keep track of which resume you send to importance of reflection, which employer. The Columbian? If you’re called for an interview you will want to show up with nicely printed hard copies of that precise document. Don’t mix first-person and third-person. Use either the pearl question, first person (“I) or third person (“he,” “she”) point of view, but do so consistently. Watch your verb tense.

If the accomplishment is Essay, completed, it should be past tense. If the and the pearl question answers, task is The Columbian Essay, still underway, it should be present tense. If the skill has been used in the past and will be used again in oyster and the pearl the future, use present tense – e.g., “conduct presentations on recruitment to professional and trade association.” Experience first. Experience sections should come before Education. This is because your qualifications are more related to your experience than your education. Exceptions would be (1) if you have just received or are completing a degree in a new field, (2) if you are a lawyer, (3) if you are an undergraduate student, or (4) if there’s something particularly impressive about The Columbian Exchange Essay your education – for example, a Rhodes Scholarship or an MBA from Harvard. Sell yourself – first and foremost. Symbolism? Always bear in The Columbian Essay mind the needs of your customer – the employer. Star? What do they need to know to assess that you’re right for Essay the job and will deliver for them? Customize your resume for each job application. Use keywords selected with your prospective employer in resolving microscope mind.

Be sure you can back up what you say (pumping up is fine but within the Essay, bounds of integrity). Use dynamic, high-energy language. Tighten up sentences where you can. Space is at a premium. Use quantitative information when possible as you describe accomplishments (e.g., ($1 million portfolio, increased sales 30%, double revenues). Look at everything you’ve written in your resume and sexest meaning add action verbs wherever possible. Make your resume long enough to include all relevant information. Be sure any e-mail addresses and social media handles shared are appropriate (not unprofessional). Use the same version of your professional “screen name” consistently. Be unduly modest.

You are selling yourself, period. Wing it. Real preparation and homework is required – no matter how lucky you’ve been in the past. Include information – even if you’re proud of it – that could be construed as controversial or possible be off-putting to the employer (e.g., fringe personal interests, religious activity, political affiliation). List everything you’ve ever done.

It’s better to leave an employer a little curious and more apt to interview you. Include salary information. It is appropriate for you to provide this information only when asked. Exchange Essay? Mention reasons for leaving jobs. You can have tactful, professional reasons ready for interviews. Include references. Provide them when requested, and be sure your references know that an sexest meaning inquiry is on the way. Try to Essay, be funny or cute – no matter how great your personality, these things don’t translate on paper. Include every single piece of information about yourself – this is not your resume’s job. If the employer wants to know more about power you, they’ll ask you for an interview.

Get wordy. Don’t use three examples when one will suffice. Be hyperbolic. Exchange? Don’t use more than one power word or adjective in one sentence. Boogie Productions Sex And Violence? Underestimate the power of The Columbian Essay reading the job posting carefully and Star & Gender Essay doing all of your homework. An astute hiring manager will recognize that you’ve done your advance work and Exchange Essay will respect that about you. 10. USE YOUR WORDS (POWER WORDS)

This isn’t about using fancy or unique words. It’s about sex and using words that connect with your customer. Remember: This is customized ad copy. accelerated accomplished achieved acquired addressed administered advanced advised advocated aligned allocated amplified analyzed answered appeared applied appointed appraised approved arbitrated arranged assembled assessed assigned assisted assumed assured attained audited authored authorized awarded. blocked boosted bought briefed broadened brought budgeted built. campaigned capitalized cascaded cataloged caused changed chaired charted clarified classified closed coached collected combined commented communicated compared compiled completed computed conceived conserved concluded conducted conceptualized considered consolidated constructed consulted continued contracted controlled converted conveyed convinced coordinated corrected counseled counted created critiqued cultivated cut. dealt decided decreased defined delegated delivered demonstrated described designed determined developed devised diagnosed digitized directed discovered discussed distributed documented doubled drafted. earned edited educated effected elevated eliminated endorsed enforced engineered enhanced enlarged enlisted ensured entered established estimated evaluated examined exceeded executed expanded expedited experienced experimented explained explored expressed extended. facilitated filed filled financed focused forecast forged formulated fostered found founded. gained gathered generated graded granted guided. halved handled headed up helped hired.

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All about the The Columbian Essay Christmas Tree: Pagan origins, Christian adaptation, and play question secular status: John Silber: Many Americans celebrate both Christmas and The Columbian Xmas. Others celebrate one or the other. And some of us celebrate holidays that, although unconnected with the [winter] solstice, occur near it: Ramadan, Hanukkah and Kwanzaa. 1. Some have traced the Christmas tree back at least as far as the Prophet Jeremiah who wrote the book Jeremiah in the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament). Opposition to the Christmas tree was intense in Star Essay past centuries. The early Christian Church in the third century CE strictly prohibited the decoration of their houses with evergreen boughs. The decorated Christmas tree only caught on in the mid-19th century. Modern-day opposition continues: some condemn the Christmas tree because they believe that the custom of cutting down a tree, erecting it in the home and decorating it is a Pagan custom. 1. For many people today, it is primarily as a secular symbol of hope for the New Year and the future return of warmth to the earth. Its future is assured in The Columbian Exchange Essay spite of opposition.

In the past, there have been many objections to Christmas trees: Hank Hanegraaff of the oyster pearl play answers Christian Research Institute commented: This Christmas season, as in those gone by, it is commonplace to The Columbian Exchange Essay, hear Christians condemn trees adorned with ornaments as idolatrous. Symbolism. The following passage from Jeremiah is often cited as support for the condemnation: Jeremiah 10:2-4: Thus saith the LORD, Learn not the Essay way of the heathen, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; for the heathen are dismayed at yellow them. The Columbian. For the customs of the boogie down productions people are vain: for one cutteth a tree out The Columbian Exchange Essay of the forest, the work of the Star Trek & Gender Sterotypes Essay hands of the workman, with the axe. They deck it with silver and with gold; they fasten it with nails and The Columbian with hammers, that it move not. (King James Version). While this passage may sound to modern ears like an yellow symbolism uncanny description of Christmas trees from the The Columbian Essay sixth century [BCE] . the historical and biblical context precludes this anachronistic reading of the text. The very next verse precludes the pretext: Jeremiah 10:2-4: 'Like a scarecrow in a melon patch, their idols cannot speak; they must be carried because they cannot walk. '' Jeremiah’s description of resolving, a tree cut out of the forest and The Columbian Essay adorned with silver and gold and power fastened with a hammer and nails so that it would not totter is, therefore, a reference to wooden idols , not Christmas trees . Even today, the complaints continue: The modern Christmas tree tradition dates back to Western Germany in the 16th century. They were called Paradeisbaum ( paradise trees ) and were brought into homes to celebrate the annual Feast of Adam and Eve on DEC-24. 4 They were first brought to America by German immigrants about the year 1700. Christmas trees became popular among the general U.S. population about 1850 and have remained so ever since.

2. Essay. President Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) arranged to have the first Christmas tree in the White House, during the mid-1850's. President Calvin Coolidge (1885-1933) started the National Christmas Tree Lighting Ceremony on Star & Gender Sterotypes Essay the White House lawn in 1923. 4. Today, the The Columbian Exchange Essay Christmas Tree has become accepted by most Christians, by people of other faiths, and for those who do not follow an organized religion. It has become a popular late-December tradition and part of our present-day culture. Christmas Trees grace households and office buildings alike. The trees take on a variety of shapes, sizes, and resolving power microscope costs. Essay. Both the Christian and secular worlds have embraced traditional green firs, beautiful white flocked trees, and even pre-lit artificial Christmas trees for those who have allergic reactions to live trees. As Gail Quick, University of resolving, South Carolina - Beaufort 's Dean of University Relations, commented on the occasion of a community tree-lighting ceremony.: This Christmas event every year is the Exchange Essay glue that holds this community together - this and sex and the July 4th fireworks. This always makes me feel good. Some of us still believe in Santa Claus. 6. The following information sources were used to prepare and update the The Columbian Essay above essay.

The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today. John Silber, Anti-Christmas stance isn't rooted in fact, Boston Herald, 2000-DEC-28. See: Note: The Islamic holy month of Ramadan is based on a lunar calendar that moves each year relative to the Gregorian calendar. Thus it just happend to boogie down productions violence, be celebrated near Christmas during the year 2000. * Diane Relf, Christmas Tree Traditions, Virginia Cooperative Extension, 1997-AOR, at: * Christmas tree: Pointing towards heaven, at: What is Exchange Essay a tree?, at: * Should Christians celebrate Christmas? , at: * William Dean, Christmas tree lighting sparks holiday spirit, Carolina Morning News on the Web, at: * The Christmas Tree as a Symbol of Pagan Baal Worship , The Ellen White Research Project, at: * Tertullian, Wikipedia, at: David Beaulieu, Christmas Tree Decorating: The History of the Christmas Tree , Landscaping,, at: Turtulian, On Idolatry , XV. Hank Hanegraaff, The Christmas Tree Tradition, Christian Research Institute daily e-Truth, 2015-DEC-15. * Unfortunately, since the first draft of this menu was written in the year 2000, most of the above references have gone offline.

You can sometimes resurrect archived copies of websites as they existed in resolving power microscope the past by using the Essay Wayback Machine on the Internet Archive site at: Copyright © 2000 to 2015 y Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.

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File input (or “upload”) in HTML forms. A form in an HTML document (Web page) can contain an input element with type=file . This may let the user include one or more files into the form submission. The form is often processed so that such files are stored onto the disk of the Web server; this is The Columbian Essay why file input (or file submission) is often called “file upload.” File input opens interesting possibilities, but browser support is still limited and generally of poor quality even in newest versions. Symbolism! Moreover, users are often puzzled with it, since most people use file input rather rarely. This is a legacy document, with many references to outdated browser versions. The Columbian Exchange! It does not cover features such as the File API or the boogie down productions violence, new features in Essay, file upload in HTML5. The idea behind file input in HTML forms is to let users include entire files from their system into a form submission. The files could be text files, image files, or other data.

For text files, file input would allow more convenient mechanisms than typing (or cutting pasting) large pieces of text. Oyster Play Question! For binary data, such as images, file input would be not just more convenient but usually the The Columbian Essay, only practical way. & Gender Sterotypes! For more information on the design principles of file input, see RFC 1867, Form-based File Upload in HTML . Writing an HTML form with a file input field is rather simple. Essay! The difficult thing is actually to yellow, find or write a server-side script which can do something useful when it receives data in such a format. And the really difficult thing is to The Columbian Essay, make such processing robust and controlled so that all data is sexest meaning processed properly and so that someone won’t e.g. The Columbian Exchange Essay! fill your server’s disk space with gigabytes of junk, by ignorance or by yellow symbolism malevolence. You need to know the Essay, general basics of writing HTML forms; if you need links to tutorials and references on forms, consult How to write HTML forms . Then, what you need to do in HTML is to write a form so that the action attribute refers to a server-side script which is capable of handling submissions containing forms or, technically speaking, being in pearl play question, multipart/form-data format; as explained below, don’t even dream about using mailto: URLs in The Columbian Exchange, action attributes, in this context or otherwise! it has the attribute method=post it has the attribute enctype=multipart/form-data it contains a field.

input type=file name= somename size= chars where somename is a name you assign to the field as you like; the form data set will contain the symbolism, content of the file “under that name”, and that name has nothing to do with the filename chars is an integer specifying the desired width, as a number of characters, of the filename box to be displayed; the size attribute is optional, but setting it to some relatively large value (say 40 ) probably helps the user, since the default width of the box in current browsers is rather narrow for typical filenames. (See notes on the size attribute.) Minimally, the form needs to contain a a submit element too. It may also contain any other fields you like, and Exchange Essay explanatory texts, images, etc. A common problem with file input in forms is that form data gets sent but only the name of the file is included. The reason is typically that the form element does not contain the oyster pearl, attributes mentioned above.

Since browser support to file input is still problematic, consider providing alternative methods of The Columbian submitting data, too. It is importance hopefully evident that what happens in Exchange, file input is the submission of symbolism a copy of the file content . The file on the user’s disk remains intact, and Essay the server-side script cannot change it , only the boogie down productions sex and violence, copy of the data. As mentioned above, the server-side script (form handler) is the difficult part in creating a possibility for submitting files. There are useful brief notes on that in the FAQ entry, but it is a difficult programming issue, and outside the scope of this document of The Columbian Essay mine. I just wish to emphasize—in addition to security issues discussed below - that what happens to sexest meaning, the data after submission is at the hands of the server-side script . It could “upload” it, i.e. save onto the server’s disk under some name, but it might just as well process the data only by extracting some information from The Columbian Exchange Essay it, or send the data by E-mail somewhere, or even send it to a printer. For example, the WDG HTML Validator provides, as one alternative, a page containing a form for submitting a file to validation. There are different server-side techniques for processing forms, so you need to consult documentation applicable to the technique you use, which is of reflection usually dictated by the characteristics of the The Columbian Exchange, server software.

In particular, if you use CGI , it can be useful to check section Programs and Scripts: Perl: File Uploading in importance, CGI Resource Index . (See also the links under “Related Categories” for scripts in The Columbian, other languages.) You might find a script suitable for your purposes, or at least ideas for writing your own script. In your own coding using Perl with CGI, you’ll probably benefit from using the module; see especially section Creating a file upload field in yellow, its documentation, and my Fool’s Guide to . As an The Columbian another example, if PHP is what you use, see section Handling file uploads in microscope, PHP Manual . For ASP, see e.g. Essay! Pure ASP File Upload by Jacob Gilley. The example below uses my simple sendback script, similar to the one discussed in sexest meaning, my document on The Columbian Essay testing HTML forms but capable of simple handling of a file field. It simply echoes back the data it gets, but presented so that your browser will display it nicely; for a file field, only 40 first octets (byes) are shown.

The HTML markup is: And on Star your browser, with its current settings, and Exchange Essay as possibly affected by my stylesheet, this is what the importance, form looks like. RFC 1867 describes, in section 3 Suggested implementation , how file input was intended to take place in a typical situation: When a[n] INPUT tag of Exchange type FILE is encountered, the browser might show a display of (previously selected) file names, and a “Browse” button or selection method. Star Trek & Gender Sterotypes Essay! Selecting the “Browse” button would cause the Essay, browser to enter into a file selection mode appropriate for the platform. Window-based browsers might pop up a file selection window, for example. In such a file selection dialog, the power, user would have the option of replacing a current selection, adding a new file selection, etc. Browser implementors might choose let the list of file names be manually edited. If an ACCEPT attribute is present, the browser might constrain the Essay, file patterns prompted for to match those with the corresponding appropriate file extensions for the platform. Upon form submit, the contents of the files would then be included into the data set sent, as defined by the specification of the Star & Gender, multipart/form-data data type (data format, data encoding). Although most browsers have supported file input for a long time, the quality of implementations is poor.

Therefore users easily get confused with file input. The following notes on browser support are mostly historical and based on fairly old observations of mine (on Win95, Win98, and WinNT). Exchange Essay! These notes are followed by more interesting notes users’ problems especially caused by power the poor quality of support on modern browsers. IE 3.0 displays an Essay input box and lets the user type a filename there—and it sends the name as part of the yellow symbolism, form data! Generally, any browser without any code which tries to support input type=file can be expected to behave that way. (A browser which does not recognize file as a possible value for the type attribute can be expected to ignore that attribute, which means that the default value will be used, as if type=text had been specified.) IE 4 has an input box and a “Browse” capability, and it actually sends the Exchange Essay, file content, but it still allows one file only to be selected. The “Browse” function display is importance unfiltered, i.e. all files which are normally visible are selectable. There does not seem to be any improvement in this respect in IE 5, or IE 6, or IE?7. Netscape 4 support to file input has a “Browse” capability, too, but the browsing has by default a filter which limits selectability to Exchange Essay, “HTML files”.

The user can manually change this, though it is questionable how familiar users are with such things. Only one file can be specified. There does not seem to be any improvement in this respect in oyster and the play answers, Netscape 4.5. Here is an example of the The Columbian Essay, user interface: The above-mentioned strange feature of Netscape has been fixed in Mozilla, which uses no filter (i.e. displays all files); on the other hand it (at least in several versions) gives no user option to switch to importance, a filtered view! Otherwise, Mozilla browsers follow the IE and Netscape tradition in implementing file input. Opera supports file input rather well. It provides a “Browse” menu, though the button for Exchange activating it carries the label “. ”, which might be somewhat confusing.

It lets the user specify several files from the menu: Normally when you click on a file, the selection is changed, but. if you keep the Ctrl key pressed down while clicking on a file, Opera adds it to the selection, and if you keep the boogie sex and, Shift key pressed down while clicking on a file, Opera discards the current selection and replaces it with a range of files, from the file you clicked on The Columbian Exchange Essay to the boogie down productions sex and violence, file you last clicked before that, inclusively. It isn’t perfect though. The Browse window is rather small, and it is impossible to pick up several ranges, i.e. you must click on the files individually unless you want to select just one contiguous range. The Columbian! And the box for file names is quite small too, and boogie down productions violence its size is not affected by The Columbian Exchange the size attribute. Sexest Meaning! See also notes on setting the Exchange, default filename. When several files are specified (for one file input field), Opera puts them into Sterotypes Essay, a multipart message inside a multipart message.

The Safari browser is popular in Exchange Essay, the Mac environment and is now available for Windows as well, as a beta version. I have been told that on Safari, the file input widget has just a browse button, labeled “Choose file…,” with no filename field. On the browsers discussed above, if the user types a filename directly into the input box, it must be the full pathname and it must be typed exactly. If the input is not a name of an Star Sterotypes existing file (e.g. due to a typo), then the form will be sent as if an empty file had been specified (though with the name given by the user), and The Columbian Exchange no warning is given. People who encounter file input for the first time might be expected to sexest meaning, get very confused, since the filename box appears first and looks like an area where the user should type something.

The user probably often wishes to view the contents of files in the dialog, since it is difficult to select the file on The Columbian Essay the basis of its name only. On Windows systems, the browsers discussed here seem to use widgets where normal clicking on symbolism a file icon selects it, and to open it (in some program) one needs to Essay, use right click and select a suitable action. & Gender Sterotypes Essay! I guess most users won’t find that out without being helped. The following screen capture presents the The Columbian Essay, dialogue on IE 4 (on WinNT) in oyster and the play, a situation where the user has right clicked on The Columbian Essay an icon and an action menu has popped up and the user is sexest meaning about to select the The Columbian, O pen action (which would, in this case, probably open the .jpg file in a graphics program or in resolving, a new browser window. There’s little you can do as the author of a form to help users in getting acquainted with such issues. If you think it’s useful to refer to The Columbian Exchange Essay, instructions for some particular browsing environments, make it clear what situations (browsers, operating systems) the instructions apply to.

The technical problems discussed here are one reason why authors should consider providing alternatives to importance of reflection, file input. There’s a section on accessibility problems below, discussing some additional reasons. The appearance of the The Columbian Essay, Browse button and sexest meaning the filename box. All the Exchange Essay, browsers mentioned above use essentially similar appearance for the widget used to & Gender Sterotypes Essay, implement a file input element: a text input box for the filename looks similar to Essay, normal text input elements ( input type=text ), and the Browse button resembles submit buttons (thus, is often grey), and it has the text “Browse” or its equivalent in another language. That text is under the control of the browser, not the author.

It has however been reported that on Netscape, the sexest meaning, text could be changed using a signed script. This is somewhat problematic, since it does not make the essential difference between submit and Essay browse buttons visually obvious. Cf. to similar problems with reset buttons. There is yellow no way to guarantee that Browse buttons “look different” or otherwise force any particular appearance such as font face or size. See the Exchange Essay, document Affecting the presentation of form fields on productions sex and violence Web pages for an overview and examples. The Browse button is particularly “immune” to The Columbian Exchange Essay, any presentational suggestions; it’s typically a “hard-wired” part of the browser’s user interface. In particular, on IE, declaring a background color and a text color for input elements in a style sheet affects submit buttons ( input type=submit ) but not Browse buttons ( input type=file ). If you think that “looking different” is important, you might thus try suggesting presentational features for submit buttons rather than Browse buttons (i.e., for input type=file elements). However, this would mean that Browse buttons look like (the default appearance of) submit buttons whereas real submit buttons don’t! So it seems that it’s best to let browsers present Browse and submit buttons their way . The input box for the filename, on the other hand, seems to be affected by similar factors as normal text input boxes. Sexest Meaning! You can apply various CSS properties to the input element, though it is far from obvious what they should mean for a file input widget or what they actually cause in each browser.

Historical note: Since input elements are inline (text-level) elements, you can put text level markup like font around them in HTML. However, such markup is The Columbian Exchange Essay often ignored when rendering form fields For example, font size=4 face=Courierinput type=file . /font might increase the font size and set the importance, font to Courier. Specifically, this happened on Netscape 4 but not on most other browsers. (As a side effect, on Netscape 4, such a font size change affected the The Columbian Exchange Essay, dimensions of the Browse button but not the Trek Sterotypes Essay, font size of the the text “Browse”. Note that if you included a color attribute there, Netscape ignored it.) You could suggest presentational properties in a style sheet too, e.g. input type=file . The Columbian! style=color:#f00; background:#ccc and these in turn would be ignored e.g. by importance Netscape 4 but applied, to some extent at least, by most other graphic browsers.

It is difficult to say how CSS rules should affect the widget, since it is an Exchange Essay open question whether e.g. the text of the Browse button (which is not part of the textual content of the HTML document) should be formatted according to the font properties of the input element. (For example, IE 4 and boogie sex and violence Mozilla seem to apply the font-size property but not the font-family property when rendering the button text. IE 6 applies font-family too. The following example demonstrates how your browser treats a file input element where we suggest presentational properties both in HTML and in CSS: The example has the HTML markup. and the Exchange, following CSS declarations applied to that input element: color:#630; background:#ffc none; font-size:160%; font-family:Courier,monospace; font-weight:bold. Such suggestions might help in making it clearer to users that there is a special input box. But try to avoid making it look too special, since there is then the risk of not getting intuitively recognized as an sexest meaning input box at The Columbian Essay all. At, there is a longish article that discusses fairly complex CSS techniques for changing the appearance of file input elements, in a sense: Styling an input type=file . I?would however advice against any substantial changes in the appearance.

Any esthetic improvement over oyster and the pearl question answers, browser defaults (in addition to Exchange Essay, being a matter of taste) has a price: it makes even the sexest meaning, experienced user uncertain of what the The Columbian Exchange, widget is. File input is sexest meaning a challenge to many users. This section discusses some specific accessibility problems in Essay, file input. For an importance of reflection overview of Essay what accessibility is and why it is important, please refer to the Guide to sexest meaning, Web Accessibility and Design for All . It has been reported that some special-purpose browsing software, such as some versions of the JAWS screen reader, have serious difficulties in file input. This is The Columbian Essay understandable, since the common implementation in browsers is oriented towards visual interaction. Even the “normal” browsers have serious difficulties in file input without using a mouse. (There are different reasons, including physiological and yellow symbolism neurological problems, why the user may need to work without a mouse or other pointing devide.) In Internet Explorer 6, you can select the The Columbian Exchange, Browse button by tabbing, but if you try to use the keyboard to symbolism, activate it, hitting the Enter key, the The Columbian Exchange Essay, browser submits the and the play answers, form instead! You would need to know that hitting the space bar (when focused on the Browse button) activates the file selection dialogue. Exchange! Netscape 7 skips over the browse button entirely when tabbing—it cannot be selected without a mouse.

Not surprisingly, on Opera things work reasonably. The user can select the Browse button using the tab key and activate it by pressing the enter key, then select a file for upload from the and the answers, file system; you would use the arrow keys move around in The Columbian Exchange, the file selection. On the yellow symbolism, Lynx text browser, at least on Lynx 2.8.4 on Unix, there is no Browse button, and there is no dialogue for The Columbian Exchange Essay accessing the productions violence, computer’s file system. Thus, the user needs to know the exact path name and syntax to type in the file name for upload, as is apparently also the case for IE and Netscape. There is also the usability problem that the The Columbian Exchange, browsing may start from a part of the file system in a manner which is not so natural to Star & Gender Essay, the user. The initial selection might be e.g. that of the The Columbian, directory where the Web browser itself resides! So users need some acquaintance with such issues before they can fluently submit files. More generally, since file input is relatively rare, users are often not familiar with it. They might not recognize the Browse button, and might have difficulties in understanding what’s going on Star Trek & Gender Sterotypes Essay when they click on it (or fail to click on it). Thus, authors should normally include some short explanation about the presence of a file input field before the Exchange Essay, field itself. This can usually me done in & Gender, a natural way, explaining simultaneously what kind and type of Exchange Essay file should be submitted.

For example, the explanation could say: “Please specify, if possible, an image file containing your photo in JPEG format.” Such a note may not help much when a user encounters such a field for importance the first time in his life, but it helps him to associate the eventual problems with a concept of The Columbian file input and to explain his problems when seeking for help. And if he has tried to use file input before, it tells him to stay tuned to something special, and perhaps at this point, before entering the file input field, to access the sexest meaning, file system outside the The Columbian Exchange, browser and find the and the play answers, exact path name of the file he wants to The Columbian Exchange, submit. The file is submitted as such, without code conversions. A plain text file is submitted without information about character encoding, so the Star & Gender Sterotypes Essay, recipient needs to guess the encoding or infer it somehow. For example, suppose that you have a UTF-8 encoded form and that it is used to submit a plain text file. If the user wrote the file using Notepad, it will (by default) be in windows-1252 encoding, and its content is The Columbian Exchange sent as such, declared just as text/plain (no charset attribute), even though contents of importance normal fields are UTF-8 encoded. The Columbian! The server-side form handler has no direct way of knowing what the resolving microscope, encoding is, so how can it meaningfully process the data? In general, the The Columbian Exchange, browser cannot tell the Star Trek & Gender, encoding, so it can neither declare it nor code-convert the data. Exchange! The reason is that commonly used file systems lack indication of the character encoding of a plain text file; it just needs to down productions violence, be known.

Thus, if your form is meant for submitting plain text files, your best option is probably to ask users to The Columbian, save their text files in UTF-8 encoding with BOM (Byte Order Mark). You can then test server-side that the data, when interpreted as UTF-8, starts with BOM. There are several possible ways to let people submit their files even when their browsers do not support file fields in forms (or the support is of so poor quality that they don’t want to play answers, use it). You could include a TEXTAREA element into the form. This would work especially for text files in the sense that a user could open his file in an editor and cut paste the The Columbian, data into the textarea. Naturally, this becomes awkward for large files, but it might still be a good idea to have a textarea along with a file input field.

Your server side script would need some more code to handle both. You could simply include an power E-mail address and encourage people to send their files to that address as attachments. You would need to have some processing for such submissions, but it could be automated using some software like Procmail. On the other hand, you might decide that such submissions will be rare, and process them “by hand.” Make sure the address is visible on the page itself. You could make it a mailto: link too, but don’t risk the functionality by some misguided attempt to The Columbian Exchange, include a fixed Subject header! Just tell people what they should write into that header (and into the message body).

Sometimes you might consider setting up an Star Essay FTP server , or using one, so that it has a free upload area. The Columbian! You would then just specify the server and the area, and of reflection people could use their favorite FTP clients. Note that for Exchange Essay the submission of a large number of files, FTP would be more comfortable than using a form with a file input field. Especially for local users, you could just give a physical address to which people can bring or send their files e.g. on diskettes or CD roms. Make it clear to them in advance which media and formats you can handle that way. The part which describes input type=file in the description of the input element in HTML 4.0 Reference by WDG. That document is also available e.g. as a mirror copy in Denmark. Note that the document contains, under More information , references to the definition of the input element in HTML specifications. & Gender Essay! Answer to The Columbian, the question How can I allow file uploads to my web site? in WDG’s Web Authoring FAQ . That document too has a mirror copy in boogie productions, Denmark. Notes on client-side scripting issues.

In client-side scripting, there are some special problems when handling file input fields. The JavaScript Form FAQ contains answers to such questions: FAQ 1154 How can I set the value of a fileupload form field? FAQ 561 How can I extract just the file name from a forms file upload field? FAQ 780 Can you simulate a click on an input type=file button? See also notes on filtering above as regards to support to event attributes for file input. The HTML 4.01 specification discusses, in section Forms , issues related to Essay, file input fields along with other types of fields.

The notes below hopefully help in locating and interpreting the relevant portions. The HTML 4.01 specification defines an enctype attribute for the form element. Down Productions Sex And Violence! Its value is generically defined as being a “media type”, referring to RFC 2045. (That RFC is Exchange actually just one part of a large set of down violence documents which what media types are. In particular, the general description of the media type concept is in RFC 2046.) A media type , also known as content type , Internet media type , or MIME type , defines a data format such as plain text ( text/plain ), GIF image ( image/gif ) or binary data with unspecified internal structure ( application/octet-stream ). But in The Columbian, the context of form submission, the productions sex and violence, use of a media type as the value of the enctype attribute is The Columbian Exchange Essay meaningful only if there is a definition of the conversion to be done. This means the exact way of encoding the form data, which is essentially a set of oyster and the question answers name / value pairs, into a particular data format. The definition must be rigorous, since otherwise it is impossible to The Columbian Exchange Essay, process the data in a useful, robust way by computer programs. The HTML specification defines two possible values for enctype : enctype=application/x-www-form-urlencoded (the default) This implies a simple encoding which presents the fields as name = value strings separated by ampersands ( ) and uses some special “escape” mechanisms for characters, such as %28 for the “(” character. It’s confusing if people try to oyster pearl play question, read it—it was meant to be processed by programs, not directly read by humans! enctype=multipart/form-data This implies that the form data set is encoded so that each form field (more exactly, each “control”) is presented in a format suitable for The Columbian Exchange Essay that field, and the data set as a whole is a multipart message containing those presentations as its components.

This is wasteful for “normal” forms but appropriate, even the of reflection, only feasible way, for forms containing file fields. The multipart structure means that each file comes in Exchange Essay, a nice “package” inside a larger package, with a suitable “label” (content type information) on the inner “package.” This type was originally defined in RFC 1867 but it is also discussed in RFC 2388 (see notes on the RFCs later). Browsers may support other values too, but are not required to, and it is generally unsafe to use them. Sometimes people use enctype=text/plain , and text/plain is per se a well-defined media type; but there is no specification of the exact method of sexest meaning encoding a form data set into such a format, and browsers are not required to support such an Exchange attribute—so anything may happen if you use it. Normally you should not try to re-invent the wheel by writing code which interprets (decodes) the importance of reflection, encoded form data. Instead, call a suitable routine in Essay, a subroutine library for the programming language you use. It typically decodes the data into a convenient format for you to process in your own code. It seems that the HTML 4.01 specification contains no explicit requirement that enctype=multipart/form-data be used if the form contains a file input field (although it explicitly recommends that).

But e.g. Yellow! IE 4 and Netscape 4 handle form submissions incorrectly if the enctype is defaulted in such a case: they send the name of the file instead of its content! The HTML 4.01 specification uses the term file select for the “control” (i.e. form field) created by an input type=file element. It specifies file select so that this control type allows the user to select files so that their contents may be submitted with a form. Note the plural “files”—the idea is clearly that one such field should allow the The Columbian Exchange, inclusion of several files. Note that there is nothing an resolving microscope author needs to do, and nothing he can do, to make a browser allow the selection of several files per Essay input field. It depends on Trek & Gender Sterotypes Essay the browser whether that is possible. However, as described above, the current browser support is poor: only some versions of Opera support multi-selection, and these do not include the newest versions.

And in fact, even if a browser allows users to pick up several files for one input type=file field, users might not know how they can do that, or how they can do that! Thus, an author might, as a workaround , include several input type=file fields if it is desirable that users can include several files into one form submission. Andrew Clover has suggested some interesting techniques for making the appearance of the fields dynamic (in JavaScript or in a server-based way) so that “the user isn’t immediately confronted with two dozen empty file upload boxes.” Alternatively, or additionally, an author might encourage users to The Columbian Exchange Essay, use suitable software like WinZip or WiZ to “zip” several files together. Naturally the server-side script must then be somehow prepared to oyster pearl question answers, handle zipped files. The HTML 4.01 specification describes the value attribute for a file input field by saying that browsers (user agents) “may use the value of the The Columbian Essay, value attribute as the initial file name.” This however is usually not supported by browsers . Star Trek Sterotypes Essay! The usual explanation is “security reasons.” And indeed it would be a security risk if files from the user’s disk were submitted without the user’s content. It might be all too easy to lure some users into submitting some password files! But in fact RFC 1867 duly notifies this problem; in section 8 Security Considerations it says: It is important that a user agent not send any file that the user has not explicitly asked to be sent. Thus, HTML interpreting agents are expected to confirm any default file names that might be suggested with INPUT TYPE=file VALUE=yyyy . It also mentions (in section 3.4) that the use of value “is probably platform dependent” but then goes on: “It might be useful, however, in sequences of more than one transaction, e.g., to The Columbian Essay, avoid having the oyster and the pearl, user prompted for The Columbian the same file name over and over Star Trek Sterotypes Essay, again.” This isn’t particularly logical, since how would the name be passed from one submission to another? (The mechanism for getting the original file name would be quite unreliable for such purposes.) A more useful application could be this: Assume that your form is for Exchange reporting a problem with a particular program, say Emacs, and that program uses a configuration file with some specific name, say .emacs , so that you would very much like to get the user’s config file for problem analysis.

Setting the default name, if supported by the browser, might be an extra convenience to the user. Thus, they just failed to answers, implement it , for no good reason. This isn’t a very important flaw, however. The situations where it would make sense to The Columbian Essay, suggest a default file name are rare. Netscape’s old HTML Tag Reference says, in the description of input type=file , that “ VALUE= filename specifies the initial value of the input element,” but no actual support to this in Netscape browsers has been reported.

Similar considerations apply to the corresponding item in Microsoft’s HTML Elements reference. It additionally messes things up by describing the intended meaning wrong: “Sets or retrieves the value of the INPUT type=file .” The description links to boogie productions sex and, a description of the value attribute which says: “The value, a file name, typed by the user into the control. Unlike other controls, this value is read-only.” This probably relates to The Columbian Exchange, using the value property in client-side scripting. And in fact, one can read the value in JavaScript (and get the filename entered by the user) but setting it is unsuccessful (without an error message); the same applies to Netscape (but on sexest meaning Opera, even an attempt to read the value seems to confuse the browser). Note that the examples in the above-mentioned documentation do not contain an input type=file element with a value attribute. However, support to The Columbian Exchange, file input in several versions of Opera handles the value attribute in the following way: the value is displayed in the box for Trek Essay file name input that value can be edited by the user (as an Exchange Essay alternative to microscope, using the Exchange Essay, Browse menu, which changes the content of that box) however if the user submits the form so that the initial value has not been changed by the user, there will be a security alert and the user is resolving microscope requested to Essay, confirm the submission. there does not seem to be any working way to specify a set of files in the value attribute. Such support, however, is absent in yellow, Opera 7.54, for some reason.

The following form contains a file input field with value=C:.emacs . The Columbian Essay! Your browser probably just ignores that attribute, but some browsers may use it to symbolism, set the initial file name: An example of Opera’s security alert in the situation discussed above: There was a short-time bug in Opera 6 that created a security hole, which would have let authors grab users’ files without their knowing, i.e. The Columbian Exchange Essay! bypassing the dialogue described above. The original local file name may be supplied as well, either as a ‘filename’ parameter either of the ‘content-disposition: form-data’ header or in microscope, the case of multiple files in a ‘content-disposition: file’ header of the subpart. The client application should make best effort to supply the file name; if the file name of the Essay, client’s operating system is not in US-ASCII, the file name might be approximated or encoded using the method of RFC 1522. This is a convenience for those cases where, for example, the uploaded files might contain references to each other, e.g., a TeX file and importance of reflection its .sty auxiliary style description. But note that this appears in Exchange Essay, subsection 3.3 of section 3. Importance! Suggested Implementatation . Thus, it is only a recommendation related to one possible implementation. You shouldn’t count on having a filename included. It seems that Netscape, IE, and Opera actually include the filename parameter. However, only Exchange Opera uses the format which seems to be the yellow symbolism, intended one, as deduced from the examples in RFC 1867 (section 6), namely a relative name like foo.txt , not a full pathname like C:mydocsfoo.txt . Internet Explorer?7 beta preview behaves similarly, and this has been explained as a security improvement.

Is the Netscape and IE behavior really incorrect? Well, since most computers have some sort of path name system for file names, one would expect to see path names in examples if the intent had been that path names are sent. The Columbian! This is consistent with the fact that in symbolism, order to actually use the file names for some meaningful purpose (like the one mentioned in The Columbian, RFC 1867: “the uploaded file might contain references to each other, e.g., a TeX file and its .sty auxiliary style description,” which clearly calls for relative file names). When path names are sent, things get much more complicated, since their specific syntax (and interpretation) is strongly system-specific, and there is even no provision for telling the server what the browser’s file system is. Star & Gender Essay! Sending relative names only is also consistent with elementary security considerations: avoid sending information about the user’s file system structure. The Columbian Exchange! Note that the security section of RFC 1867 does not mention any problems that might arise from that; this more or less proves that browsers were not expected to send path names. The idea of including a filename attribute makes sense of course, and sexest meaning would apply e.g. to a file submission containing a set of HTML documents referring to each other with relative URLs. However, it’s clear that the The Columbian Exchange Essay, processing script would need to strip off the path part of the names (which is in principle risky since C:mydocsfoo.txt could be a relative filename on many systems!). Moreover, since the submission of several files is currently clumsy at best, the of reflection, idea would be of limited usefulness even when it works. (Collections of files that refer to each other by names would be best handled as packaged into formats such as application/zip , leaving the file name issue to Exchange, be handled by zipping and unzipping programs, which can preserve relative names as well as relative directory structures.) Although the sexest meaning, user is not expected to type the filename(s) into a filename box but use the Essay, Browse function, the size of the box matters. Importance! When the user selects a file by clicking on it, the browser puts the Exchange Essay, filename into the filename box, and resolving the name is a full pathname which can be quite long.

It may confuse users if they see the name badly truncated. And most browsers seem to treat the size attribute that way. But the HTML 4.01 specification defines the size attribute for an input element as follows: This attribute tells the user agent the initial width of the control. The width is The Columbian Exchange given in pixels except when type attribute has the value text or password . In that case, its value refers to oyster play answers, the (integer) number of characters. This logically implies that for input type=file , the size attribute specifies the width in pixels, not characters. This is probably an oversight, and the risk of a browser acting literally according it is ignorable. On the other hand, you could use style sheets in addition to the size attribute. Using e.g. the attribute style=width:25em could override the size attribute; this currently seems to happen on The Columbian Exchange Essay IE 4 and newer only, but it should do no harm on browsers which don’t support it. However note that although it might seem attractive to use style=width:100% , asking the browser use as wide a box as possible, there’s the problem that at oyster and the pearl play answers least IE 4 puts the Browse button on the same line as the box. Thus you would in effect force horizontal scrolling! Something like style=width:80% would be better, though it is just a guess that the box and the button will then usually fit.

Setting restrictions on the file size. Especially if “file upload” means storing the file on the server’s disk, it is The Columbian Exchange necessary to consider imposing various restrictions. It would be nasty if some user filled the down productions, disk with gigabytes of junk, by ignorance, or by misclicking, or by malevolence. Exchange! See section Avoiding Denial of Service Attacks in the documentation of Star & Gender Sterotypes Essay; even if it isn’t directly applicable to you since you use other techniques than CGI and Perl, it gives some food for thought in The Columbian Exchange, general. The server-side form handler can be coded to do whatever the importance, programmer wants, and Exchange Essay imposing some upper limit is clearly a must. (That is, the code should check for the input size, and discard, or otherwise process in a special way, submissions exceeding a reasonable limit.)

Any client-side restrictions, i.e. checks done by a browser prior to of reflection, form submission, are unreliable and The Columbian Exchange should be considered as extra comfort to users only—so that they get a rejection message earlier. RFC 1867 says: If the INPUT tag includes the attribute MAXLENGTH , the user agent should consider its value to represent the maximum Content-Length (in bytes) which the server will accept for of reflection transferred files. It appears that no browser has even tried to implement that, and there’s no statement about The Columbian Exchange such a feature in HTML specifications. On the contrary, the HTML 3.2 specification says something quite different: You can set an upper limit to the length of file names using the maxlength attribute. Thus, it is better not to of reflection, use the maxlength attribute, because it currently does nothing and, worse still, in the future it might be interpreted in two incompatible ways. The HTML 4 specification takes no position on this: it describes maxlength as defined for input type=text and input type=password only. Filtering (through a file type filter) Thus you could specify, for example, accept=image/gif,image/jpeg , if you are willing to get image files in GIF or JPEG format only. Browsers might use this information to set up the Exchange Essay, Browse menu so that only such files are selectable, at least initially.

And the HTML 3.2 specification even claims: “Some user agents support the ability to restrict the kinds of resolving power microscope files to those matching a comma separated list of Exchange Essay MIME content types given with the resolving microscope, ACCEPT attribute[;] e.g. accept=image/* restricts files to images.” (Note that image/* is not a MIME content type. Obviously the intent is that some “wildcarding” could be applied, but there doesn’t seem to The Columbian Exchange, be any definition about that.) But it seems that browser support is oyster and the question answers currently nonexistent. Exchange! No filtering is applied, except on Netscape 4 which initially sets a filter which restricts selectability to symbolism, HTML documents, no matter what there is in an accept attribute! And even if there were support, you of course couldn’t rely on such filtering, for many reasons. The Columbian Exchange Essay! If it worked, it would be basically for user comfort, not for setting effective restrictions (which must be imposed by the form handler). Using client-side scripting, you might help some users so that they won’t submit data of wrong type.

For example, assume that we wish to have a file input field where a JPEG file must be specified. And we might take the simplistic view that this means a file name which ends with jpg , and check, in a client-side script, that the value of the field matches that. Note that the value is the play answers, filename, not the file content. However one must be extra careful here. Although the The Columbian Essay, event attributes onfocus , onchange and onblur for input type=file are supported even in earliest JavaScript implementations (from version 1.0), there are limitations and problems. In particular, onblur seems to be treated strangely, and and the pearl question the obvious idea—associate checking code with onblur —seems to make Netscape run in an eternal loop. Thus, it is probably best to associate the checks with file submission only . Exchange! This means using the onsubmit attribute in importance of reflection, the form tag. The Columbian Essay! Example: The status of the original description of input type=file , namely RFC 1867, Form-based File Upload in HTML , is vague. The HTML 4.01 specification makes only an informative reference to it, and mentions a “work in progress” in this area: This is however outdated information; the URL does not work, and power the draft has expired.

There does not seem to be anything else even at the level of Internet-Drafts to replace RFC 1867. There is however RFC 2388, Returning Values from Forms: multipart/form-data which might be related to the process. However it is Exchange Essay not specified to yellow symbolism, obsolete RFC 1867. In the HTML 4.01 Specification , the informative references have been updated so that a reference is made to The Columbian Essay, RFC 2388, with a note “Refer also to RFC 1867.” In June 2000, RFC 2854, The 'text/html' Media Type , was issued. It’s basic purpose was to “to remove HTML from IETF Standards Track” officially, i.e. to make it explicit that work on HTML specifications has been moved from IETF to W3C. Importance Of Reflection! It explicitly obsoletes RFC 1867, together with some other HTML related RFCs. But note that there is Essay very little in HTML specifications by the W3C that defines what file input really is; they refer to RFC 1867 instead. RFC 1867 contains much more detailed information about “file upload” than HTML specifications.

It explains the original idea and how it might be implemented. However, its normative status is vague, and the implementations are still wanting, so you should generally not expect browsers to support the idea very well.