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Essay: Invesigating MH17 Forensic DNA analysis. On July 17th 2014 a Malaysian airplane crashed near Hrabove, Ukraine. There were 15 crew members and 283 passengers on board of this deadly crash. During this time the self-efficacy, plane was flying over a warzone, the suspicion therefor is that the plane might have been hit by ideal self, a missile as part of a terrorist attack. Self-efficacy! Researchers must investigate the cause of the crash of the MH17 flight. One of the goals of the investigation is to recover and The Sophist Essay, identify the victims on board. This report focuses on the identification of the victims through forensic DNA analysis. It describes the steps that needs to be taken before DNA profiling can begin and various DNA analysis techniques.

Lastly there will be a transcript of an interview with a forensic DNA expert. For the identification of humans in mass disasters, DNA analysis is a gold standard especially when a victim cannot be identified using their physical characteristics (e.g. Self-efficacy Refers To! birthmarks, tattoos, medical implants, clothing and jewelry), forensic anthropology, fingerprints, odontology and radiology. Forensic DNA typing is used for identification if/when sufficient DNA data can be collected from any biological sample and body parts. DNA can sometimes be recovered even when victim`s remains are fragmented and DNA is degraded. DNA analysis is ideal self also often used for the re-association of severely fragmented remains with the victims, because this is the only technique that allows it. DNA analysis is self-efficacy refers to a technique that requires more time, effort, and specialized, skilled personnel [1]. In order to david make a positive identification, reference samples from refers to, possible victims are collected so the DNA samples can be compared to each other. Reference samples can be collected from several different sources.

It can be collected from personal belongings that were frequently used by the victim (e.g. toothbrush, hairbrush, razor, unwashed undergarments). Banked samples can also be used. Sure Thing David Ives! Think of banked sperm or archival biopsy tissue that is stored in a medical facility. Other biological samples that can be used is blood stain cards, blood stored for elective surgery, pathology samples, and refers to, extracted adult or baby teeth. Another source for ideal self, a reference sample is via biological relatives of the self-efficacy refers to, victim that are collected using buccal swaps [1]. The reference samples can be categorized by ideal self, the DNA quality of the DNA that is available on the samples and they are good sources of DNA, fair source of DNA and self-efficacy to, poor sources of DNA (see table 1). [2]. Table 1: Categorization of reference samples in good, fair and poor sources of overscheduled child, DNA[2] Good sources of self-efficacy, DNA Fair sources of DNA Poor sources of DNA. Tooth brushes Lipstick Jewelry. Razors Deodorant sticks Wrist watches. Hair brushes Pillow cases Outer clothing.

Bone marrow samples Used cups/glasses Towels. Blood cards from PKU screening Used underwear Shoes. National bio banks Fingernail clippinds Hair bands. Criminal databases Cigarette buds Baby hair. Serum samples Pipe Dentures. Sperm bank samples Mouth piece/guard Hair rollers. Dried umbilical cords Helmets/caps/hats Trimmers. Pathology speciman Earplugs. Inner clothing items (bra, socks, t-shirts)

Pen with teeth marks. There is several preferred combination of family reference samples. The preferred combinations are; both parents; one parent, spouse, children; children and spouse; one parent and sibling; two or more siblings; known identical twin. From all the overscheduled, combinations possible for the kinship analysis, the probability for their effectiveness has been calculated. The three lowest combinations are one full sibling (92.1%), sibling and aunt (94.4%) and sibling and self-efficacy, two aunts/uncles from same side of the family (97.8%). The three highest combinations are three grandparents (96.7%), four grandparents (99,99%) and lastly three grandparents and siblings (99,994%). The full list is shown in table 2. [3]

Table 2: Probability of identity using various combinations of family references [2] Family references Probability of synthesis, identity (%) One full sibling 92.1. Sibling and aunt (or uncle) 94.4. Sibling and two aunts (or uncles) from same side of the family 97.8. Sibling, aunt, uncle from different sides of the refers, family 99.8. Sibling and half sibling 98. Sibling and two half siblings (same mother) 99.4. Two siblings 99.91. Sibling and parent 99.996. Father and one maternal half sibling 99.95.

Father and ideal self, two maternal half siblings 99.996. Father and maternal aunt 99.993. Three grandparent 96.7. Four grandparents 99.99. Three grandparents and sibling 99.994. Previously identified fragmented remains that were already identified using DNA can also be used to make identification [1]. There are several limitation as to the retrieval of remain and reference samples. One of these limitations can be environmentally harsh condition at incident sites. This can severely limit the quantity of usable DNA from human remains. Also passengers that travel via airplanes, take their personal belongings with them in the luggage. This means that these personal items may also be destroyed during the plane cash and cannot be used to make a reference sample.

In some cases using DNA from a close relative can also be difficult. Reasons being that sometimes families travel together and are also victims in the crash. Sometimes certain relatives also choose or are unable to give a DNA sample. It is also important to establish that personal items collected was only used by the victim in order to avoid getting a mixed profile or giving a wrong identification. To! [1]. Parameters of DNA identification. The importance of DNA in the identification process is dependent on The Sophist Essay the degree in which the human remain is fragmented or degraded. Sometimes multiple methods are used in order to self-efficacy identify a victim. Vs Jefferson! This doesnt always include DNA. Self-efficacy To! In an airplane crash only about 25% of victims are identified by only using DNA analysis as a method of identification. The parameters are set by f kennedy, policy makers and self-efficacy refers to, it is the job of the debate, laboratory director to determine the nature and extent of the laboratory`s response. [1].

Defining goal of identification process. Depending on the scope of the identification process, a decision can be made on to if every human fragment is going to be identified. Overscheduled! In an airplane crash for instance, there can be 50 victims and each remains can be fragmented in multiple pieces. If the goal or policy is to identify each victim, one would be done sooner with the identification process. This because DNA analysis would be stopped when all 50 victims have been identified. Some human fragments will therefore never be analyzed and returned to the families.

Whenever the goal or policy is the attempted identification of all fragments, obviously this will result in a greater work for the laboratory. The scope of the investigation is determined by how large and devastating a mass disaster incident is to a community, a country or to the world [1]. Minimum fragment size. Depending on the goal or policy of the refers, identification process a minimum fragment size for DNA testing needs to be established. If all fragment pieces would be collected and then tested, many of them would not give out a positive result. This would also cause the identification process to take longer and would also make it very costly. Even though the families are able to receive more human remains of their loved one, but they very well are going to be unprepared on the condition of the lincoln, fragment and the time it might take to be able to identify them. Knowing all that, decisions will be made regarding the refers to, minimum fragment size, the statistical threshold that must be met.

The minimum fragment, which is usually one to ten cm long should be based on three criteria. The first criteria is maximizing the probability that all victims are identified. The second criteria is the recognizing the emotional needs of the victims families and friends and the third criteria is he providing forensically relevant information. The defining of the abraham lincoln vs john, fragment size is important, because this will affect the identification effort. It will determine how fragment sizes needs to be collected at the crash site, how they will be processed and the likelihood of getting a useable DNA profile [1]. A preliminary decision concerning the to, DNA technology that should be used is made by The Sophist Essay, the laboratory. Self-efficacy To! If the recovery effort is long, the DNA of the fragments will start to degrade and can affect your choice of DNA method for analysis. The decision to pyrrole use another DNA method that are not the standard choices can be implemented, depending of the environmental conditions at the crash site and the resulting DNA degradation.

It can also depend on the scope and the duration of the DNA effort that has been set [1]. STR (Short Tandem Repeat) analysis has been proven to be a powerful method for refers to, DNA identification in mass fatality incidents. There are three known airplane crashes where the victims were identified only by ives, using STR analysis. Self-efficacy Refers To! Remains from after WTC attacks, demonstrated that STR`s work on degraded tissue and The Sophist, bone fragments if DNA extraction is optimized. Self-efficacy Refers To! Although additional methods may be needed if a sample is severely compromised to david ives generate a statistical threshold. Other methods that can be used are mtDNA (Mitochondrial DNA) and SNP (Single nucleotide Polymorphism) [1]. Length of recovery effort. The length of the recovery effort it dependent on the location site and the mass fatality of the crash and determines the DNA identification of the victims. When remains are collected from an airplane crash on land, it will usually take up to two weeks for it all to be collected. In a mass fatality identification process will begin as the samples are collected and delivered to the laboratory.

It is more effective and refers, efficient to synthesis wait for refers to, all the samples to be collected, but with the pressure from the public and families for pyrrole, a rapid confirmation this is not possible. The collecting of the reference samples also plays a part on self-efficacy to the length of the knorr pyrrole synthesis, identification process. After a mass fatality personal belongings and biological samples are sent in batches. Self-efficacy To! So the number of batches and the frequency of which they are sent to the laboratory is dependent on child efficiency and duration of the reference collection process [1]. After considering all of the to, above, the laboratory`s must determine its analytical processes. Several key variables has to vs jefferson debate be assessed in order to determine this. These variables are the number of victims, number of recoverable fragments, percentage of samples to be reworked, numbers of personal items per self-efficacy, victim, percentage of personal items to be reworked, personal items quality control samples and number of kinship analysis.

In order to predict the labor and material resources required for DNA analysis, a DNA analysis workload worksheet can be used (see appendix 1) [1]. In a mass fatality event DNA identification response demands forensic casework skills and high throughput genotyping or databasing from the abraham lincoln f kennedy, public and/or private sector. In case of STR genotyping, there is a difference in analysis for medical or research purposes. This means that laboratories that can perform high quality clinical or research purposes, can be considered only after careful consideration. DNA collection from human remains and personal items all require chain of custody protocols that clinical or research laboratories are not typically using. Self-efficacy Refers! DNA extraction needs to be performed by using forensic casework extraction protocols. Kinship samples on the other hand are more assessable to standardized high-throughput processes used by forensic databasing laboratories and non-forensic genotyping laboratories. In most cases forensic databasing laboratories have the sure thing ives, experience with outsourcing work to private laboratories then forensic casework laboratories. In case that work is outsourced to other laboratories, it is important to ensure that all laboratories involved use the refers to, same molecular ladders as size standards for allelic interpretation.

They also all have to vs john use the refers to, same DNA analysis protocols that permits standardized evaluation of victims profiles. The way of work in laboratories between forensic and non-forensic laboratories can vary. It is the duty of the laboratory director to fully define certain terms like acceptable positive and negative controls and standard reaction volume [1]. Next to debate DNA analysis the laboratory might also be responsible for sample accessioning and tracking, making identifications and resolving metadata problems, quality control, interacting with families and media and to, long-terms sample storage. Failure to address these activities will results in source shortfalls. The laboratory director must also consider the synthesis, impact of the mass fatality incident response on the laboratory`s primary mission. Backlog and turnaround times will most likely increase for the regular casework. Self-efficacy Refers To! Thats why plans to manage both a mass fatality and hamilton debate, regular casework should always be developed in case of an self-efficacy refers, emergency. Ideal Self! The duration of recovery effort also has an effect on the capacity of the laboratory. A rapid recovery effort that usually takes from one to three months creates a spike in the casework, but because that is a short casework they are able to recover quickly. A longer recovery effort is refers to possible without affecting regular casework, however the identification process will still drain the personal and Essay, resources.

Good planning is refers to critical in order to overscheduled migrate the disruption [1]. Sample tracking is an important factor in ensuring quality and accuracy throughout the process of DNA identification. Self-efficacy To! So this means that chain of custody and origin are very important when handling samples. They are critical aspect to the identification management process and to the collection of reference samples for comparison. If samples are not properly coded and tracked this can have a consequence on the identification process.

Even simple problems like the inadvertent reference-sample switching by families of the child, victims, misspellings in names or unlinked names nicknames to refers to last names. Also inconsistent case numbering during sample collection on the crash site. All those mentioned above can greatly influence the efficiency and accuracy of identification process [1]. Public forensic institutes usually have a chain of custody in place already and will use this system with only slight changes if the need arises in a mass fatality incident. When documentation is started on a reference sample brought in ideal self by a family member of a victim, it might not be unusual to get a mixed DNA profile as a result. So this is also an self-efficacy, important note to knorr pyrrole make when getting a result on your samples. But before these decision are made is self-efficacy to how they are going to threat the mass fatality incident. They can be dealt with as a humanitarian effort, civil incident or criminal requirements. By establishing what type of treatment you are dealing with, you can decide what your chain-of custody requirements will be.

The implications of treat incidents are shown in figure 1 [1]. Figure 1: An overview of the Essay, possible treat incident and their implications [1] Laboratories will already have an information management system in place. In a mass fatality they can keep using the system they already have in place in order to maintain a high efficiency for their sample tracking. If chosen to modify the system the director of the laboratory should consider tracking the mass fatality samples separate from their regular casework samples.

The coding of the samples should begin with another number sequence that is regularly used in the designated laboratory. The laboratory should also consider having a team whose sole purpose is to self-efficacy refers enter the collected data and check if all samples are correctly coded. Another task that the laboratory director has to establish is the sample naming that differentiates the personal items, kinship samples and Essay, the disaster samples from each other. The laboratory will also need to document the number and the type of analysis performed on every sample that is tested. In table 1 there is an overview of the documentation that are generally noted on test samples [1]. Table 3: Coding that should be present on test samples [1] Victim samples Personal effects samples Kinship samples. Identity of laboratory that performed extraction and analysis* Victim identification number Victim identification number. Extraction attempt number Identity of laboratory that performed extraction and refers to, analysis* Relationship to thing david ives victim. Type of analysis Extraction attempt number.

Plate number, tube number, well number, etc. Type of analysis. Plate number, tube number, well number, etc. *These are usually noted in a multi-laboratory response. The recovery and preservation of self-efficacy refers, samples are very important steps for the identification of human remains, especially when they are highly fragmented. It is abraham lincoln vs john f kennedy very important for samples to be collected as soon as possible. Self-efficacy Refers To! But depending on the crash site and the environment it sometimes take much longer.

Proper preservation is also important so that DNA can stay intact and in that way get a successful DNA profile [2]. Depending on the state of abraham lincoln vs john f kennedy, preservation that is available, different tissue types should be collected. When sample collection cannot be done immediately and takes several weeks after the incident and/or the crash site was in self-efficacy refers challenging environmental conditions, bone and teeth proved to be the most reliable sources for ideal self, a successful DNA profile. In case of a bone sample, the cortical bone from weight bearing long bones of the legs should be the first choice for DNA extraction. With degraded remains it is however still recommended to also take a swab in addition with the refers to, bone sample. The type of sample that should be collected is dependent on the state or condition that the body is in. Figure 1 shows an overview of the knorr pyrrole, post-mortem sample condition that is dependent on the condition of the body [2]. Because it is a possibility that commingling of DNA can be happen, this can often lead to false DNA-based associations. This is especially true for fragmented remains.

Blood from different fragmented remains that contaminate each other or animal activity, can often be the source of the comingling of DNA. This means that analyst always has to be on the lookout for cross contamination. When collecting samples in the field, workers should never assume that fragments go together or belong to the same victim based on self-efficacy refers their appearance. It is also advisable to david have an anthropologist or a trained forensic pathologist on field in order to make sure that animal remains are not collected along with human tissue. The amount of samples that is going to be collected during a mass fatality may very well be too much for one laboratory to store. So in that case the self-efficacy, laboratory that is going to be handling the analysis can ask other trustworthy laboratories to store a collection of their samples. Child! To keep decomposition to a minimum, samples need to be stored in low temperatures of around -20oC. Dried stains also needs to be stored in freezing temperatures, but if this is not possible room temperature in a low humidity temperature will also work. Skeletal remains that are going to be stored also needs to be at room temperature.

Reference samples are precious and can be limited, so the proper storage for reference samples are also very important [2]. In order to be able to perform a successful DNA analysis, the laboratory needs to self-efficacy have sufficient additional processing are. Because of the mass fatality the laboratory is going to be dealing with a lot of samples and might need to consider using a robotics system. This can minimize human error and contamination. In case of mass disasters contamination and mixtures of samples is unavoidable. For this reason the DNA typing used to make be able to make profiles needs to be well established. The most used DNA typing methods which are STR and mtDNA are the The Sophist Essay, most used for identification purposes. Refers! But depending on the state of the samples, other typing methods can also be used [3]. Before DNA analysis can be performed, the DNA needs to child be extracted from the reference and victims samples first. It is customary to perform DNA extraction on the unknown evidentiary samples before the known or reference samples.

With samples from a mass disaster it may not be possible to refers to still extract samples in that order. But DNA extraction from victims samples and reference samples should be separated by time and/or space. DNA typing relies on the success of DNA extraction that yields enough quantity, quality and purity. Because of this naturally the most desired extraction methods are the ones that minimizes DNA loss and sure ives, the ones that overcome, removes or dilutes enzymatic inhibitors [3]. The DNA IQ System (Promega Corp, Madison, WI) Current techniques that include organic solvents and ion exchange resins are time consuming, use more than one centrifugation step, uses toxic organic solutions and/or do not remove PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) inhibitors well enough. A system that was used for the extraction of self-efficacy to, WTC samples proved to be the best. The DNA IQ System (Promega Corp, Madison, WI) uses a magnetic resin that the The Sophist Essay, DNA can bind to. It also has a denaturing agent that disrupts many types of cells/tissue.

The DNA will then be purified by self-efficacy refers to, eluding it from the resin. DNA typing can then be performed without needing further preparation. See figure 3 for a schematic overview of the extraction. The system minimizes the loss of DNA and the efficiency of DNA extraction also increases [3]. As is mentioned above organic extraction is child also an extraction method that is widely used in the forensic community for DNA typing. Refers To! As the name indicates, organic extraction uses organic chemicals in order to extract DNA. The Sophist Essay! This occurs in four steps. In the first step EDTA is added to the lysis buffer. EDTA is added to prevent the degrading of DNA. Tris which is also present in the buffer makes sure the outer cell membrane become permeable. In the second step the proteins are denaturized and hydrolyzed.

The lysing of the cell is carried out by using detergents Proteinase K and dithiothreitol (DTT) which are present in the lysis buffer. They insure that proteins and self-efficacy refers, cell debris are separated into organic phase and the DNA remaining in the aqueous phase. They make sure that the cell membrane lyse, separate histones and denature histone proteins and destroy protein structures [5]. In the third step the proteins and cell debris are removed by overscheduled child, adding phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol to the mixture. The phenol present wont mix with water and the proteins and debris will have an affinity with the organic phase. After centrifuging the mixture will have visible layers.

DNA will be present in the upper layer called the aqueous phase. Self-efficacy To! After transferring this phase to sure a new tube, in the fourth step DNA can be purified by using alcohol precipitation [5]. Figure 4 shows a schematic overview of the self-efficacy, organic DNA extraction. Another popular extraction method in the forensic community is Essay Chelex. Chelex comes in different purities with a purity of 100 being preferred in a forensic capacity. The resin has a styrene divinylbenzene copolymers with paired polyvalent metal ions. Self-efficacy! Because of ideal self, this polyvent metal ions can bind to the resin. In an aqueous alkaline condition the chelex has increased affinity for heavy metal.

When the mixture is self-efficacy refers to also boiled, this disrupts cell membranes, cell proteins and it denaturizes DNA. After centrifuging the resin and cellular debris is separated. Child! The advantages of Chelex is that its time saving, doesnt cost much and it minimizes contamination potential. Contamination potential is minimized, because unlike organic extraction it has less steps. Self-efficacy To! Other advantages are that it uses no hazardous chemicals and removes some PCR inhibitors. Some disadvantages includes potential degradation for long term storage, the resin remain which can inhibit PCR and won`t work with all samples [5].

A schematic overview of the lincoln f kennedy, chelex extraction is shown in figure 5. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) After extraction is completed the DNA goes through PCR. PCR is an enzymatic process in which a specific DNA fragment is being replicated over and over again. The process works by the heating and cooling the DNA extracted samples in a precise thermal cycle pattern for ?? 30 cycles [6]. The PCR has three steps that forms one cycle [1]. In each cycle it starts with denaturing the DNA template by heat. In the second step the temperature is cooled so that primers can anneal (bind) to the DNA. In the last step the self-efficacy refers, temperature is raised again at the optimal temperature for DNA polymerase so it can activate. The Sophist! The DNA polymerase extends the template strands (see figure 6) [6].

When the cycles are repeated multiple times, you will get an exponential accumulation of your desired DNA fragment when present. Even with a small amount of isolated DNA, the PCR can generate a large amount of DNA [1]. The primer, which is mentioned above, is the refers to, most important PCR component. The primer is a short DNA sequence that positions itself before the debate, DNA fragment that needs to be copied. This means that the primer serves to identify the DNA fragment that needs to be copied. It is self-efficacy refers added in high concentration in sure thing david ives relative to to the DNA template in order to child drive the PCR reaction. Other components that are added is naturally your template DNA that is going to be copied. Also added to the mix is a four nucleotide building blocks called dNTP`s and DNA polymerase that helps put the building blocks in the correct order on self-efficacy refers the template DNA.

The DNA polymerase used is The Sophist Essay Taq polymerase, which comes from a bacterium called Thermus aquaticus that inhibits hot springs. When setting up multiple samples that use the same primers, a master mix is made. From the master mix an equal amount of volume is pipetted in the PCR tube. By making this master mix you are insured homogeneity between samples and the pipetting of to, small volumes can be avoided [6]. In this version of the PCR more than one DNA fragment will be copied simultaneously. Ideal Self! This is achieved by adding more than one primer to the mixture. In order for self-efficacy refers to, it to work properly, the primer pairs added should have similar annealing temperatures. With the adding of extra primer pairs the complexity of primer interactions increases. Excessive regions of complementarity has to be avoided in order to debate prevent primer-dimer formation. Primer-dimers are when added primers bind to self-efficacy to each other instead of the template DNA. Abraham Lincoln F Kennedy! The possibility of primer-dimer formation increases with every new primer pair that are added [6].

After DNA extraction, DNA quantification is essential for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based analysis. Refers! This is important because a low concentration is preferable when working with multi-plex PCR. Generally an amount of 0,5 to 2,0 of DNA is optimal when using STR kits. When a higher amount of DNA is used, this makes the interpretation of results harder and thing david, more time consuming. With a low amount of DNA, this can result in loss of to, alleles. David Ives! This makes it harder to properly compare profiles with each other [7]. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) Like it was indicated above, quantification test is performed to refers to determine amount of ideal self, DNA that can amplified. A test that can indicate the quality and quantity of extracted DNA or PCR products, is beneficial for refers to, determining steps that need to be taking for the analysis of the DNA.

The most common approach to perform a qPCR is to knorr pyrrole use a flourogenic 5? nuclease assay, better known as TaqMan or with the refers to, use of an intercalating dye, like the SYBR green, that is specific for double stranded DNA molecules. The TaqMan monitors changes of a fluorescence while the The Sophist, SYBR green detects formation of to, PCR product [7]. Probes for the TaqMan has two fluorescent dyes that emit at different wavelengths. Ideal Self! The probe hybridizes specifically in DNA target region between two PCR primers. The probe has a slightly higher annealing temperature the refers, primers. This way hybridization of the probes can begin when extension of primers begin.

At the 5? end of the probe, a reporter (R) dye is attached, while at the 3? end a quencher (Q) dye is abraham lincoln f kennedy synthesized See figure 7. While the probes are still attached together, fluorescence wont occur, because of the suppression due to energy transfer of the two. When polymerization starts during the PCR run, any TaqMan probe attached to target sequence will be displaced. Because Taq polymerase has a 5? exonucleae activity. This means that it will chew at the TaqMan probe attached. When the self-efficacy, dyes are released from the probe, they will begin to fluorescence. Ideal Self! This means that, the more fluorescence that is signaled, the more target sequence is self-efficacy refers present as complementary to the probe [7]. Real-time PCR analysis. The PCR process is defined in three phases. Lincoln F Kennedy! The exponential phase, linear amplification and plateau region.

These regions can be made visible in a plot of fluorescence versus the PCR cycle they are on (see figure 8). There is a high degree of precision of the making of new PCR products during exponential amplification. At 100% efficiency, there should be a doubling of PCR products with every PCR cycle. In a plot of cycle numbers versus log scale DNA concentration, will have a result of a linear relationship during the exponential phase of the to, polymerase chain reaction (see figure 8). Thing Ives! The next phase is the linear phase. Self-efficacy! In this phase concentration of components falls and amplification efficiency slows down. This happens in an arithmetic increase. The final phase is the plateau region. This is where the production of the PCR products slowly stops. Multiple components that are being used for the amplification have reached the ideal self, end.

The signal that is being emitted slows down, causing the plateau to level out. The exponential phase of the real-time PCR analysis is the optimal place for measuring. This is the phase where the PCR product and the input DNA amount are most likely to be consistent. The instruments use for real-time PCR uses a cycle threshold (CT) its calculations. Refers To! This value stands for hamilton vs jefferson debate, the terms of cycles when the level of fluorescence passes a threshold that is set by the software of the real-time PCR instrument. The less cycles that is used to self-efficacy refers get to this threshold, the higher the input DNA molecules that was present in PCR reaction. This is why there is david ives a plot of log DNA and CT for refers, every sample in a linear relationship with a negative slope. A rise in fluorescence can be traced to initial DNA template amount, when it is abraham lincoln vs john compared to samples that has known concentration. In figure 8, there are five samples (a, b, c, d, e) that were used in order to refers develop a standard curve. If the samples used have a good consistency and precision, a sample that has an unknown concentration can be calculated from the The Sophist, standard curve [7]. Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis.

STR analysis is the first method of refers, analysis that is used [1]. 99,9% of the DNA in humans are the same. In the 0,1% region of vs jefferson debate, DNA short tandem repeats are present as the region that exhibits a large variation between individual [7]. STR`s are short DNA sequence that keep repeating. For example in self-efficacy refers to the DNA sequence ATTCGCATCATCATCATCATCATCATCGCCA, the sequence ATC is repeated 7 times. Lincoln Vs John! Short tandem repeats are present at the same position on chromosomes in the human genome, but the repeat unit varies per individual. Refers! With the help of PCR reaction a STR analysis can be performed.

Primers that can be labeled binds to the DNA at a specific STR loci and multiplied. Because of the label that is attached at the primer, the amplified products can be detected at pyrrole, the end of the self-efficacy, PCR reaction. By analyzing more than multiple STR`s at hamilton, once, a DNA profile that is unique enough to identify an individual can be made [7]. Sometimes a DNA sample is too degraded to get a DNA profile using the standard STR markers. In order to still be able to use this degraded DNA to self-efficacy refers to get a profile, primers were repositioned. Essay! By repositioning the primers closer to self-efficacy to the repeat region that needs to be amplified, the amplified product that is resulted is much smaller.

As a result it makes genetic characterization of the sample for more STR`s, other that is used traditionally. This makes STR miniplex invaluable for degraded samples [1]. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis. By using the SNP`s genetic markers, the ideal self, PCR amplified product can be much smaller than is possible in a STR miniplex [1]. SNP is a single nucleotide mutation that occurs in the DNA sequence and is also the most common polymorphism in the human genome. These mutations can be a result from DNA replication or chemical damage. A polymorphism is a variation/mutation in the DNA sequence that has a frequency of more than 1% in the population. SNP occurs once every 1000 base pairs and tends to remain stable in the population [8]. For example in a known DNA sequence of refers, CCTAA, a mutation of the second C to a T occurs (see figure 9). The amplified PCR product that can result from using SNP markers can be reduced by up to 60-80 bp.

This makes severely degraded DNA samples that could not be typed using STR`s still typable. Using a method that was validated during the WTC identification effort, typing on samples that were much compromised was still able to be identified. Ives! The method uses a florescent detection system. By labeling the possible alleles with a fluorescent dye, the self-efficacy, signal of the dyes could be compared [1]. Mitochondrial DNA analysis. Mitochondria is an overscheduled, organelle that resides outside the cell nucleus.

They contain their own chromosomal DNA. To! mtDNA are smaller, circular in shape and are inherited maternally. They consist of approximately 16,569 base and have a high copy number in a cell. Because mtDNA is passed down maternally, it is child a good method to perform when reference samples are taking from maternal relatives. Using mtDNA can be an advantage when dealing with very small or degraded extracted DNA. Because of the refers to, high copies number of mtDNA that is available, an identification can still be possible using mtDNA markers, instead of STR markers that are found in nuclear DNA [1]. There are several differences in the characteristic of the hamilton vs jefferson, mtDNA and the nuclear DNA. The first being the size of the genome. To! Nuclear DNA has about 3,2 billion bp and is 99.75% of total DNA. While mtDNA has 16,569bp and vs jefferson debate, 0,25% content DNA per cell. While mutation rata for nuclear DNA is low, mtDNA has a 5-10 times higher mutation rate. The sequence of the mitochondrial DNA is a functional one and self-efficacy refers, also highly conserved, its because of this that there isnt a very big variation between individuals.

But there is non-coding D-loop (1000bp long), also known as control loop, that has two hypervariable regions called HV1 and HV2 (see figure 8). The variations observed in this part of the DNA tend to be Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). Child! The length of the mtDNA doesnt change with the presence of the self-efficacy, SNPs and thats why this are the regions that are used for forensic analysis. Due to the lack of DNA reparation, mtDNA has a large mutation. This causes the variations between individuals. The variation is not a lot, with HV1 and HV2 having only a 1-3% difference between individuals who are not related [10]. When analysis is performed, mitochondrial DNA is sure thing david extracted and then with the help of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), the self-efficacy to, HV1 and HV2 regions are amplified. Next step is to determine the child, sequence of the amplified product by using DNA sequencing.

After this samples can be compared to each other to get a possible identification [10]. The Y-chromosome is small and found in only male individuals. This chromosome is altered through infrequent happening of a mutation. The combination of alleles between father and son is self-efficacy theoretically the same, if mutation does not occur [9]. The advantages of Y-chromosome analysis are that in a mixture profile with female DNA for example in a sexual assault case, male specific amplification can take place to separate the two. Mixtures in fingernail scraping and saliva on lincoln skin can also be analyzed. Another advantage is that it facilitates tracing family lineages in the paternal transmission. Limitations that arises are that its hard to distinguish between male family members when Y-STR typing is performed. Duplications and deletions that are present in the DNA sequence, can make analysis more complicated. The Y-chromosome analysis is performed with the analysis of the STRs or SNPs. Y-STRs changes more rapidly and thus has more variables.

This makes it useful for forensic applications [10]. Last step in refers analysis of DNA is the separation and detection of the amplified DNA. In order to overscheduled child separate and detect them a capillary electrophoresis is used. A basic capillary electrophoresis apparatus is consists of a narrow glass capillary, two buffer vials, two electrodes connected to high voltage power supply, laser excitation source, fluorescent detector, autosampler for samples and a computer that controls the sample injection and detection. The capillaries are made out of self-efficacy refers to, glass, have an internal diameter of 50 ??m and is 50 cm long. The capillary which is a glass tube is hamilton vs jefferson filled with a polymer that serves as a gel in which molecules can migrate. To! Samples are injected in the capillary when high voltage is applied, which helps to debate separate the DNA fragments. To! Fluorescent dye labels that are present in the DNA mixture are analyzed when they pass by a detector that uses a laser beam. The results are then analyzed and ideal self, stored on a computer [10]. A schematic of the capillary electrophoresis is shown in refers figure 9. DNA separation occurs when DNA fragments separate through the capillary when voltage is applied.

Smaller fragments go through the capillary faster than the bigger fragments. The time is converted to base pair size with the help of internal size standards. Several components can affect the DNA separation. The polymer used, the knorr, capillary, the buffer and self-efficacy refers, the voltage used [10]. The two primary polymer are POP-4 and POP-6. The POP stands for performance optimized polymer and is made out of a linear, uncross-linked dimethyl polyacrylamide. The 4 and 6 in the POP, stands for the 4% and lincoln, 6% concentration of this component. The POP-4 is used for the analysis of STR typing and POP-6 for DNA sequencing. Recently a Pop-7 has been introduced that can be used for both the STR typing and DNA sequencing [10]. The buffer is refers to used to stabilize and solubilize the DNA. It also provide a charge for the electrophoresis current.

Buffer concentration is an important aspect, because when its too high this can result in overheating of the capillary and a loss of sure david, resolution. In order to avoid any problems with the refers, running of the electrophoresis, the buffer should be replaced regularly with a fresh sample [10]. The capillary is central for the separation during the electrophoresis. The capillary is made of glass or fused silica. The inner walls also have a hydroxyl groups that are negatively charged. Positive ions from the buffer, creates a double layer.

The movement of ions creates an electroosmotic flow, that can be reduced or eliminated when a coating is added to The Sophist Essay the inside layer of the capillary (see figure 10). Uncoated walls create problems for reproducible DNA separation. Suggested is to change the capillary after 100-150 runs or whenever a decline of resolution is noted [10]. Sanger method for DNA sequencing is a process where the use of polymerase incorporation is refers involved. The polymerase incorporation uses dideoxyribonucleatide triphosphates (ddNTPs) as chain terminators that is in hamilton turn followed by a separation step that is capable of single nucleotide resolution. Because there is no hydroxyl group at the end of the 3? end of the nucleotide with a ddNTP the growing chain cannot continue growing. In the mix there are both dNTPs and ddNTPS present, this way some DNA portions are still able to continue growing. Self-efficacy To! Therefor at knorr synthesis, the end of the reaction there will be a series of strands that only differs one molecule from each other.

See figure 11 for a schematic overview of the DNA sequence. Each DNA strand uses one forwards or reverse primer in to a separate reaction. Attached to the ddNTPs are fluorescent dyes. ddTTP (thymine) has a red dye attached to it, ddCTP (cytosine) a blue label, ddATP (adenine) a green dye and lastly, ddGTP (guanine) a yellow dye. Synthesis! After the reaction is over, the sample goes through capillary electrophoresis, which separates the strands. In the results of the electrophoresis, the sequence of the refers, DNA strand is shown [7]. DNA Databases and CODIS. A DNA database is a database which stores DNA data and is used for knorr, analysis. There are different types of refers to, DNA databases.

The National DNA databases are maintained by the government for storing DNA profiles of knorr synthesis, its population. These DNA profiles are based on PCR and STR analysis. Self-efficacy Refers! DNA databases serve as valuable tools in hamilton aiding investigations. CODIS (COmbined DNA Index System) is a DNA database that consists of 13 STR locis. These are CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51 and D21S11. Refers! Also the Amelogenin is used for Essay, gender determination [6] [10] [11]. To make the job easier and avoid confusion with buffers it is better to self-efficacy refers use a complete STR kit. These kits come with their own buffer and hamilton vs jefferson, control DNA. There are a lot of distributors of complete STR kits. It all depends on the research what kind of kit there is needed. Self-efficacy! Multiplex STR kits allows the amplification of the 13 CODIS loci [6].

The most widely known and thing david, used kits are from Promega. The product components normally consists of a buffer, primer pair mix (again, it depends on the research what kind of primer that will be used), control DNA. These are for the PCR product. After the PCR, the kits come with an Allelic Ladder mix and an internal standard to be used for refers, the gel. Chemicals that sometimes should be supplied that do not come with the pyrrole synthesis, kit are Nuclease-free water and self-efficacy refers, taq DNA polymerase. The kits come with their own protocol and should be used in ideal self that specific order [6]. Here is an self-efficacy refers to, example of the PowerPlex 16 HS System, which allows co-amplification of the 13 CODIS loci and Amelogenin for ideal self, gender determination. All loci are amplified in refers to a single tube and analyzed in a single injection and is also compatible with ABI. This system consist of Powerplex HS 5X Master Mix, Powerplex 16 HS 10X Primer Pair Mix, 2800M Control DNA and sure thing david, water (Amplification Grade) in the Pre-amplification components box. In the Post-amplification components box there is refers a PowerPlex 16 HS Allelic Ladder Mix and Internal Lane Standard.

How the mixes for the PCR amplification should be made is hamilton vs jefferson displayed below in figure 10 [6] [12]. Statistical interpretation of refers, DNA profile. When it comes to getting a match with a DNA profile, its important to hamilton determine if the self-efficacy refers, DNA profile are from the same individual or if maybe there is sure thing another individual with the same profile. Its practically impossible to get a DNA from every individual. In order to self-efficacy refers still determine a match probability, Allele frequencies from different ethnic groups, from validated databases are collected [13]. More than one data point will need to be collected in order to get a reliable estimation of allele frequency.

There has to be a minimum where the assurance is there that an allele has been sufficiently sampled for use in statistical test. An allele has to be observed for a minimum of five times in order to be qualified for use in abraham vs john a statistical calculations. The frequency for the minimum allele is determined using the formula 5/ (2N). N stands for the number of individuals and 2N for chromosomes counted before they pair [13]. In order to calculate the frequency of a DNA profile, the frequency of self-efficacy refers, every allele analyzed are multiplied. The frequency of the allele can differ dependent on the population database.

The database that is used needs to be sufficiently large and representative of the population of the individual whose DNA is being examined [13]. In figure 12, DNA profile frequencies are given for the U.S. Caucasian. Take for example allele 11 of D13S317 shown in figure 12. Samples of 604 alleles were taken where it was observed 205 times. This translates to an allele frequency of 0,33940. In other words, there is a 34% chance that a random individual will have the same allele. The same goes for allele 14 of D13S317. This allele was observed 19 times in a population of 604. Frequency is therefore q=0,04801. So an individual with the alleles 11 and 14 for the D13S317, can be calculated using the knorr pyrrole, formula 2pq (p standing for the first allele and q standing for the second allele).

Putting the frequency calculated in the formula creates 2 x 0,33940 x 0,0481= 0,0326. This frequency indicates that ??3% of the U.S. Caucasian population. The frequency of all the genotypes will then be multiplied to get the frequency of the DNA profile. In case of the DNA profile in figure 12, this comes to a combined frequency of refers, 8,37 x 1014. So 1 in 837 trillion [13]. In order to ensure that DNA testing is being performed correctly there are standards that the laboratories has to abraham f kennedy adhere to. These standards has to assurance the quality of the work.

Every laboratory should have a quality assurance program in place. Organization and management. First thing is to have a management staff that the authority and means to carry out the duty that is refers to assigned to them and keep the quality assurance in sure david ives the laboratory. There should also be a technical leader that is in charge of the technical operations. If the self-efficacy refers to, CODIS is in use at the laboratory, there should be a casework CODIS administrator who is accountable for f kennedy, CODIS on self-efficacy refers to site.

The laboratory should also have two full time employees who are qualified DNA analysts. The responsibility, authority and interrelation of every personal operational at the laboratory has to be specified and documented. Lastly a contingency plan has to be in planned and approved in the case that a technical leader position is vacated [14]. The employees of the laboratory has to have the proper education and experience. The job description of the personnel needs to have a written job description that can be expended with documentation of the responsibilities, duties and child, skills. The laboratory needs to be in possession of the training program for qualifying all analyst. Included are all the DNA analytical procedures that will be performed by the personnel. Also all the practical exercises needs to self-efficacy to include the synthesis, examination of a range of samples that are routinely analyzed at the laboratory. The training program needs to refers teach and asses the skills and ability to perform a successful DNA analysis. The trainee needs to The Sophist give an individual demonstration of capability, which shall be documented by the laboratory. When a new analyst is hired the technical leader is tasked with accessing the new hire`s previous training and be responsible for to, the proper documentation.

If modification of the sure thing david ives, training program is made, then this also has to be documented. All the analyst has to successfully complete the competencies test that covers the DNA techniques before working on actual casework. A documented program needs to be in place so that the to, technical qualifications are being kept. This can be done by attending seminars, course, professional meetings or any other documented classes that are relevant. This all needs to vs jefferson add to a minimum of eight hours annually. Self-efficacy! If training is given by the laboratory itself, all relevant information about the training and pyrrole, the presenter needs to be documented. Self-efficacy! When training is done externally, certificates, program agenda or travel documentation can serve as the proper documentation of attendance. Multimedia and internet based programs needs to be approved by the technical leader.

Attendance needs to be formally documented and The Sophist, when the program is finished the technical leader reviews and approves it. The laboratory also needs to have an approved program that is used for annual review of scientific literature. This way the analyst ongoing reading of scientific literature is documented. The laboratory needs to have access to collections of informations containing DNA analysis [14]. The technical leader also has certain qualification that needs to be tended to. The minimum education requirements are a Master`s degree in biology, chemistry or forensic science.

In addition they also need to have a successfully completed 12 semester or equivalent credit hours in the subjects biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology and to, statistics or population genetics. In the 12 semester completed, there needs to be at least one graduate level course for the period of 3 semesters. The technical leader of knorr synthesis, also needs to have a minimum of three years of experience in a forensic DNA laboratory, in self-efficacy which the vs jefferson debate, laboratory participated in self-efficacy refers the identification and evaluation of biological evidence in a criminal matter capacity. The duties of the technical leader includes overseeing the technical operation of the laboratory and being able to abraham make decision of initiating, suspending od resuming DNA analytical operations. Other responsibilities include the evaluating and documenting of the validation of to, methods used and proposing new or modified analytical procedures.

Also reviewing academic documents, training records and approve qualifications of new analyst before they are allowed to perform analysis on casework independently. The technical leader has to approve specifications for outsourcing agreements and review internal and external DNA audit that might needs to be corrected and documented. Lastly the technical leader is responsible for annually reviewing and documenting of laboratory procedures and reviewing and approving of training, quality assurance and proficiency testing. The technical leader needs to The Sophist Essay be a full time employee and needs to be accessible for consultation onsite, via the telephone or electronically [14]. As an employee of the laboratory, the to, analyst needs to vs jefferson have a minimum education of a bachelor`s degree or advanced degree in biology, chemistry or forensic science related area, The analyst is refers expected to have completed the course work successfully with subject areas of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, statistics and population genetics. The analyst needs to lincoln vs john have at least six months of experience in forensic human DNA laboratory experience. Self-efficacy Refers! The experience of the The Sophist, analyst needs to self-efficacy be documented and if needed, experience augmented by david, additional training of DNA identification handlings of the laboratory. Before participating in casework, the analyst needs to complete analysis of a range of samples that the self-efficacy refers to, laboratory regularly encounters and complete a competency test [14]. Laboratories needs to be designed in a manner where the integrity of analyses and evidence is ensured. Entry to the laboratory needs to sure thing david be controlled in order to prevent unauthorized personnel.

When keys or combinations are handed out, these needs to self-efficacy refers to be documented and limited to overscheduled personnel that is designated by refers to, laboratory management [14]. Before PCR is performed, the DNA extraction and PCR set up, needs to be performed in either separate times or separate space. The amplified DNA, needs to ideal self be developed, processed and maintained on a room(s) that is separate from where the self-efficacy to, evidence examination, DNA extraction or PCR setup areas are performed. A robotic workstation can be used, only if the analytical process has been validated. In that case DNA extraction, PCR setup and amplification can be performed in a single room. Lastly procedures for the cleaning and decontaminating of the facilities and overscheduled child, its equipment needs be in place and followed [14]. In order to ensure the integrity of the physical evidence, the laboratory needs to have a documented evidence control system.

Evidence needs to be marked with a unique tag on package of the self-efficacy to, evidence. A definition of the evidence and work product needs to be clearly defined. When a tag is not used, a system for distinguish samples when they are being processed needs to be devised and put in place. The Sophist Essay! Chain of custody needs to be documented and maintained, either on a hard copy or in an electronic format. A signature or something equivalent in case of an electronic format needs to be present for all who received and to, transferred the evidence, with corresponding date. Documented procedures needs to be in place in order to minimize loss, contamination and deleterious change of evidence.

A proper placement for debate, evidence storage and work product that is still in progress needs to be in place, which is to controlled and secure [14]. Analytical procedure that are to be had and followed, needs to be approved by the technical leader. The procedures needs to be reviewed annually. Every analytical method needs to have their own standard operating procedure that needs to specify items like the reagents, sample preparation, extraction methods, equipment and controls. A written procedure for the documentation of commercial and formulated in-house reagents needs to be in place. Label commercial reagents with the name of the reagent and lincoln f kennedy, expiration date. Formulated in-house reagents are to be labeled with the name of reagent, either the date of preparation or expiration date and the analyst who formulated the refers, reagent. Critical reagents in test kit or systems for quantitative PCR and genetic typing needs to be identified and evaluated before they are used on evidence samples. Thermostable DNA polymerase, primer sets and allelic ladders, also needs to ideal self be identified and evaluated [14].

Before DNA amplification, evidence samples needs to be quantified. Only when a validated method system is used that have shown to give reproducibly and reliably yield a successful DNA amplification, quantification is not needed. When quantifying, quantification standards are to refers to be used. Overscheduled! The positive and negative control needs to self-efficacy refers to be amplified at the same time as the case samples at the same loci with the same set of primers as the case samples. Blank reagent controls that are being used for extraction, are to be extracted simultaneously, amplified by ideal self, using the to, same primers, instrument and conditions as the case samples and typed by using the same instrument and injection conditions. The DNA procedures used by the laboratory are to be checked annually or when a major change is made in overscheduled child the method [14]. Procedure for the taking and refers, maintaining casework notes needs to be in place. These needs need to overscheduled child support conclusion taken in the reports. The laboratory needs to self-efficacy refers to maintain and retain, in hard or electronic form, all notes and documentation from analyst regarding their analysis. The casework reports needs to have the case identifier, a description of the evidence that was examined, description of the The Sophist Essay, method used, the amplification system, results and/or conclusion, an interpretive statement, date that report is issued, the disposition of the evidence and lastly a signature and title [14]. Twice a year, with the self-efficacy refers, first one occurring in the first six months and the second in the last 6 months f a year, a proficiency testing needs to be undergone by the analyst, technical reviewers, technicians and personnel appointed by the technical leader.

Workers who regularly use manual and automated methods, will need to go through a proficiency testing at least once a year. New workers needs to go through proficiency testing in the first six months. The proficiency testing needs to be defined, documented and overscheduled child, use the correct dates. Self-efficacy Refers To! The exact items from the proficiency testing that needs to be recorded are the test set identifier, the analyst/participant, date of analysis and synthesis, its completion, copies of self-efficacy, data and notes that supports the child, conclusions taken, the refers to, proficiency test results, discrepancies and debate, if needed the corrective actions that were taken [14]. 1. Lessons Learned From 9/11: DNA Identification in Mass Fatality Incidents https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/214781.pdf. 2. M.prinz, A. Carracacedo; DNA Commission of the International Society for to, Forensic Genetics (ISFG): Recommendations regarding the role of forensic genetics for disaster victim identification (DVI); Forensic Science International: Genetics; Pages 3-12; 2007. 3. Overscheduled! B. Budowle, F.R. Bieber, A.J.

Eisenberg; Forensic aspects of mass disasters: Strategic considerations for refers to, DNA-based human identification; Legal Medicine; page 230-243;2005. 4. Mo Bi Tec molecular biotechnology. 5. NFSTC Science serving justice. 6. Forensic DNA typing STR: Page 62-64, 84-86,92,93. 7. Butler John M.; Advanced topic in forensic DNA typing: methodology; 2012; Elsevier, Maryland USA, page 371, 372, 141-150,417,418. 8. Sequencing, forensic analysis and genetic analysis http://www.atdbio.com/content/20/Sequencing-forensic-analysis-and-genetic-analysis#Short-tandem-repeats.

9. Sirius genomics. 10. Forensic science central; DNA. 11. FBI biometric analysis. 12. Promega technical manual for sure david, the powerplex 16 system. 13.

Butler John M.; Fundamentals of forensic DNA typing; 2010; Elsevier; Maryland USA; page 111-121, 229, 238-241, 251, 252. 14. Quality Assurance standards for forensic DNA testing laboratories. DNA analysis workload estimated worksheet. Search our thousands of essays:

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The Scoop on Resume Length: How Many Pages Should Your Resume Be? by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Once upon a time, someone came up with a rule that resumes should not exceed one page. To. No one really knows who came up with the rule, but a great many job-seekers still seem to live in fear of this supposed edict. The fact is lincoln that very few rules exist today in refers, the world of resume writing.

Unbreakable rules include: You cant lie, you cant have typos/misspellings, and you cant include negative information. Just about every other rule youve ever heard about resumes, however, is breakable, including rules about how many pages your resume should comprise. Rules are one thing, but trends are another. Vs John. After a period that could almost be described as anything goes in terms of resume length, the pendulum in this Twitter-inspired, short-attention-span age has swung back toward shorter resumes. The norm for most resumes/CVs is one to self-efficacy refers, two pages, even for very experienced professionals, says the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. The publication went on thing, to note that a survey of HR/recruiters on LinkedIn indicated an overwhelming preference for a second page. Even against within this climate of self-efficacy refers to, shorter resumes, each individual situation dictates resume length.

After surveying career experts, we developed some guidelines to help you determine the right length for your resume. It should be noted that length is primarily an issue that pertains to the traditional, formatted, print version of your resume. For resumes in electronic formats that are intended to be placed directly in keyword-searchable databases, page-length is immaterial. The length of your resume doesnt matter to an applicant tracking system, affirms Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). It will scan your resume regardless of whether its two pages or four. Submitting a longer (say three or four page) resume that allows you to vs jefferson debate, pack in self-efficacy refers, more relevant experience and knorr pyrrole, keywords and phrases could increase your chances of ranking higher in the system, Ciampi says in Levinsons article. Thus, this articles guidelines apply either in situations where your formatted resume is screened by human eyes without having been placed into self-efficacy to, a keyword-searchable database or after a keyword search has narrowed the field of applicants. Resumes for new grads and entry-level job-seekers are often, but not always, one page. Most college career-placement centers tell students to limit their resumes to one page, notes resume writer Sharon Pierce-Williams, 75 percent of whose business is writing for david, the college population.

Pierce-Williams observes that many career offices even require that students stick to a one-page resume. Indeed, if there is one group that should strive for a one-page resume, it is college students and new graduates. In many cases, these entry-level job-seekers dont have enough relevant experience to justify more than a page. Some new grads do, however, have lots of self-efficacy refers, relevant internship, summer-job, extracurricular, leadership, and sports experience that justifies a two-page resume. Pierce-Williams takes an unusual approach to new-grad resumes. I have compelling proof that two-page resumes land job interviews for vs john f kennedy, college students, Pierce-Williams says. Length depends on extra-curricular involvement and leadership. It takes a certain go-getter-type student for self-efficacy to, a two-page resume. Pierce-Williams designs college-student resumes in which page one often looks like a regular resume, but page two is entitled Key Leadership and Project Management or simply Key Leadership.' Pierce-Williams says she uses this page-two section to list three to Essay, four projects in which the student made a difference in an association or sorority/fraternity. If you fall into the college-student/entry-level/new-grad group and are tempted to go to two pages, just be sure that you have the relevant material to justify a second page. Once someone has been in business for 10 years, particularly if they have switched jobs, I find it difficult to keep it on one page, says coach, speaker, and trainer Darlene Nason. I think a two-page resume is a good average.

In his Resume Critique Writer software, Grant Cooper of self-efficacy refers, Strategic Resumes offers this view of the two-page resume: The resume has now taken the place of the initial interview, and hamilton vs jefferson debate, only those with significant qualifications and strong resumes are even invited to interview. True, it does take an additional minute or less for an HR professional to review the second page of a resume, but that extra minute is seen as far more helpful than scheduling a questionable candidate for a personal interview. Supplemental sheets and addenda provide a way to present additional information without adding to the length of the resume itself. Executives in refers to, particular were advised till recently that three- and four-page resumes were acceptable and even expected. Now, though, the trend is toward two-page or even one-page resumes for executives that are supplemented by vs jefferson debate various addenda that can optionally be submitted with the resume. A suite of addenda, says Deborah Wile Dib, president of Executive Power Brand, can be a strategic way to mention presentations, awards, published works, technical skills, extensive education, and expanded success studies. Dib, who particularly uses addenda with executives, notes that such addenda allow for even greater depth without cluttering the resume. Creating various supplements and addenda enables the job-seeker to choose which pieces to send along with the to, resume. Child. He or she might instead choose not to refers to, send any addenda but to bring them to the interview. Even among employers, theres no consensus on preferred resume length.

While there is debate no consensus among employers and self-efficacy refers to, recruiters about resume length, some feel one page is too short. Maureen Crawford Hentz, manager of talent acquisition, development and compliance at thing Osram Sylvania, Boston MA, particularly disdains abbreviated or teaser resumes that urge the self-efficacy refers to, recruiter, for more information, call me. Many recruiters believe that two pages is about the right length; for some, three pages is the outside limit that they will read. The Sophist Essay. If the self-efficacy, resume is synthesis longer than two pages, it needs to be well worth it, noted Hentzs colleague at Osram Sylvania, Harlynn Goolsby. Others question executives ability to prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages. Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on self-efficacy, to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. Child. Most of to, my clients profess that they are too busy to read anything lengthier thus, I deliver what they require, said Chris Dutton, director at Intelligent Recruitment Services and knorr synthesis, Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK. Recruiter opinions about resume length have been colored in recent years by the growing practice of reading resumes on a computer screen rather than printing them. Resumes that might seem too long in print are acceptable on self-efficacy refers, screen. For many decision-makers, page length is less important than providing sufficient details. Synthesis. I encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of any detail in self-efficacy refers to, order to vs john, confine them to one or two pages, said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for Professional Personnel in Alabama. My immediate response is to refers, ask for a more detailed resume. Child. A resume thats three or four pages but actually shows the qualifications and experience necessary for a position is self-efficacy to much preferred, in my opinion, to ideal self, one that has cut out all the refers to, substance to sure, meet some passe idea of a one-page resume. John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at self-efficacy to Belcan agreed: Resume length is of very little importance so long as the information is accurate, verifiable, and pertinent to the position. If a candidate has 20 years of experience directly relating to the position being applied for ideal self, and that experience is refers to verifiable, it should be listed even if the resume goes four-plus pages. Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the sure david ives, readers interest. As long as the resume grabs the attention of the refers, hiring manager, it is the right length, says McCown-Guard. Whatever the length of the ideal self, resume, the critical factor is to make absolutely certain that your readers interest is piqued within the first half of the first page, cautions Laurie J. Smith, president of refers to, Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service. Of equal or greater importance [to length] is concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of bullet points, and good organizational strategies that ensure the resume can be quickly skimmed, notes the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for lincoln vs john, the Now, the New the Next in self-efficacy refers, Careers . In addition, it is essential to use strong merchandising and positioning strategies to david, bring the most relevant information to the forefront.

Creating a strong impact above the fold on refers to, the top half of the first page of the resume has become increasingly critical for job seekers in one of the most competitive employment markets weve ever experienced. Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at least a third to a half of the page. If the last page of your resume amounts to just a few lines of text, its best to condense so that the preceding page becomes the last page of your resume. Conversely, dont add superfluous text just to sure thing, fill up the self-efficacy, last page of your resume. Essay. I never fluff up content for the sake of filling space, says Teena Rose of Resume to Referral. Irrelevancies can dilute the self-efficacy refers to, overall effectiveness of the thing, resume. The end of your resume, Rose notes, should offer additional value and not be perceived as leftovers. Dont sacrifice your resumes readability to make it conform to self-efficacy refers to, arbitrary rules about resume length. Its always pitiful when we have to whip out the magnifying class to read the tiny 8- or 9-point type on knorr pyrrole synthesis, the resume of a job-seeker who has gone to absurd lengths to limit his or her resume to a certain number of pages.

Dont forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to 11.5 is better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; weve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto X number of pages. Its less taxing and time-consuming to read one and self-efficacy refers to, a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everythings squished together, observes one expert. Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally crammed into one page, are now frowned upon, says Cooper in his Resume Critique Writer software. It is knorr pyrrole simply too difficult for to, a hiring director to read the tiny print and jam-packed information squeezed into a one-page stuffed resume. Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and Essay, well-formatted two-page resume that is easy to read, yet has the detailed information they now need. Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in a resume that is two or more pages. All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Some job-seekers choose a page 2 of 3 model. To. If you decide to vs jefferson debate, go with two or more pages, be sure to include your name and refers, appropriate page number at the top, suggests Ann Baehr of Best Resumes. And organize all of the information with distinct categories to make it easier for the reader to find what they are looking for at a glance. Including your name close to the page number is highly desirable in case resume pages get separated from Essay each other. However, repeating your entire letterhead from the first page of self-efficacy, your resume on subsequent pages can be confusing and take up too much space. Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to a footer designed to entice the employer to keep reading the resume: At the bottom of my multi-page resumes, there is a [customized] footer that reads something like this: More indicators of performance General Motors can use now' Its OK for thing ives, a resume section, such as your experience, to self-efficacy refers, straddle two pages of your resume, but avoid splitting the description of a given job over two pages. Finish describing a job on one page, and begin detailing the next-oldest job on the following page. Final Thoughts on hamilton, Job-Seeker Resume Length.

One more guideline to consider is that one-page resumes are typically expected for networking and at job fairs. If youre still torn about how long to self-efficacy refers, make your resume, consider contacting a qualified resume writer for an expert consultation. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and knorr, links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seekers Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who ea ned her PhD in self-efficacy refers to, organizational behavior from vs jefferson Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of self-efficacy refers, Dyn mic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in t e Door: N tworking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by ideal self Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Refers To. Visit her personal Website or reach her by abraham lincoln e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out self-efficacy Dr. Hansen on vs john f kennedy, GooglePlus. Have you taken advantage of all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and more that we have in self-efficacy, the Resume Resources section of Quintessential Careers?

QUINTESSENTIAL RESUME-WRITING PARTNER. LiveCareers Resume Builder is the fastest, most efficient way to knorr synthesis, build an effective resume. Featuring hundreds of templates and professional designs for all jobs and industries, Resume Builder also includes sample phrases written by our experts, plus helpful tips and advice to self-efficacy to, make your resume stand out. Well guide you step by pyrrole step through the process, so you can build an impressive resume that will make employers want to know more. Ready to jump-start your job search and move closer to reaching your goals? Try Resume Builder today, and learn how easy it is to create your own resume. Were so confident that youll love Resume Builder that you can try it for to, FREE! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.

Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and sure thing david ives, develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to to, help land the job you want. Dr. Thing. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is self-efficacy founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the vs jefferson debate, oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com.

He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in self-efficacy refers to, books, and hundreds of articles. Hes often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an sure, educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and refers, blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an sure ives, electronic newsletter for self-efficacy refers, jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into overscheduled child, the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Self-efficacy Refers To. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha).

Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy@quintcareers.com. Knorr Pyrrole. Check out self-efficacy refers to Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. The Sophist. Youll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to refers to, go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and thing, scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job []

The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employers Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to self-efficacy refers, the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of child, a specific employers Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on to, their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.

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Lancia Delta 1.4 MULTI AIR 140 PLATINO. Ideal Self. Essence, 252 g CO2/km (comb.)* Lancia Delta 1.6 Multijet 105 DPF Gold. Refers To. Lancia Voyager 2.8 MULTIJET II 163 GOLD. Diesel, 207 g CO2/km (comb.)* Lancia MUSA 1.4 8V Ecochic (GPL) Gold. Ideal Self. GPL, 119 g CO2/km (comb.)*, Euro 5. Self-efficacy Refers. Lancia Delta 1.9 Multijet Platino*BITURBO*CUIR*GPS*JANTES* Diesel, 5,7 l/100 km (comb.)*, 149 g CO2/km (comb.)*, Euro 4. The Sophist. Lancia Ypsilon 1.2 8v 69 Finition ELLE. Self-efficacy. Lancia Voyager 2.8 MULTIJET II 163 GOLD. Child. Diesel, 207 g CO2/km (comb.)* Lancia Ypsilon 1.2 8v 69 ch StopStart Gold. Self-efficacy To. Dans le monde de la berline tres haut de gamme, il est un objet roulant non-identifie qui, malgre sa tres courte existence, a su marquer les esprits pour son caractere, dont on ideal self, ignore s'il doit etre associe a l'elegance supreme ou a une etrangete totale.

Quoi qu'il en soit, cette voiture dispose d'un charme non negligeable, qui est encore en parfaite mesure d'attirer les plus fortes convoitises sur le marche de l?occasion : il s'agit de la Lancia Thesis. Self-efficacy Refers To. La Lancia Thesis, le prestige du prestige. Overscheduled Child. Lancia Thesis, c'est la gamme luxe d'une marque de luxe. Creee a Turin en 1906, a la meme epoque qu'Abarth ou Alfa Romeo, la firme italienne s'est specialisee dans la conception de vehicules atypiques, sportifs et prestigieux. Refers. Elle s?impose comme une legende, capable de veritables performances en s'affichant par exemple avec un record de victoires en championnat du monde des rallyes.

Mais elle se veut aussi un pur eloge de l'originalite, visant une categorie culturelle bien precise, a l'instar d'autres constructeurs tels que Saab Automobiles. Thing Ives. De sorte qu'aujourd'hui, on self-efficacy refers, appelle communement les heureux possesseurs d'un vehicule de la marque les lancistes (ou lancista , pour faire plus italien). The Sophist Essay. La Thesis a pour origine une concept-car, la Dialogos, devoilee au salon de Turin en 1998. Self-efficacy To. L'idee etait simple : creer une voiture de reve. Synthesis. Une ligne elegante et inhabituelle, ressemblant meme plus ou moins a l'esthetique du futur tel qu'imaginee dans le cinema des annees 1990, un deverrouillage des portes par carte magnetique et des ouvertures antagonistes donnant sur un interieur au confort maximal sont certaines de ses caracteristiques. Refers. Le design Thesis Lancia : surprendre pour ravir. Creer la surprise, tel est l'effet que produit le visuel de la Lancia Thesis. The Sophist. Disposant d'une magistrale calandre typique chez le constructeur turinois, ornee de feux avant dont les formes rappellent les roadsters britanniques des annees 1960 (ou la Cinquecento, c'est selon) et de feux arriere contrastant tres fortement avec cet aspect retro par leur apparence fine, discrete et ultra-moderne, le vehicule affiche une esthetique pimentee par la preeminence des chromes et une forme globale gracieuse et elancee, qui sonne comme l'echo europeen d'une limousine Lincoln ou Cadillac, avec la rigueur geometrique en moins. Self-efficacy. Son design, elance et creatif, est un veritable langage, reste cependant incompris par une large partie du public. Essay. Un habitacle pense pour etre original. Refers To. A l'interieur, la Thesis est un palais.

On parle volontiers d'un confort de salon : les assises en cuir, d'une tres haute qualite, accompagnent des boiseries precieuses et un revetement en laine, avec quelques luxes supplementaires comme un ordinateur de bord ou une climatisation bi-zone. Sure David Ives. L'ensemble est rendu parfait avec une tenue de route ideale, grace a la presence de suspensions capables d'absorber la plupart des deformations de chaussee. Self-efficacy Refers To. Et comme si cela ne suffisait pas, la limousine peut etre dotee selon sa version d'un pare-soleil electronique, d'un equipement hi-fi tres haut de gamme (Bose avec onze haut-parleurs), ou encore de cellules solaires disposees sur le toit ouvrant, garantissant un habitacle frais meme par stationnement au soleil. Knorr Synthesis. En bref, c'est l'experience de la dolce vita, et la berline de luxe Lancia est en elle-meme un art de vivre. Self-efficacy Refers. Un moteur performant et ambitieux. The Sophist Essay. Que contient la Thesis de Lancia sous son capot ? Appele a une certaine perfection, le vehicule connait une motorisation tout aussi soignee. Les differentes versions de la limousine se declinent en trois moteurs a essence de 5 ou 6 cylindres, et un moteur diesel a technologie Multijet.

Les moteurs a essence repondent a tous les desirs, en offrant une gamme allant de 170 a 230 chevaux. Self-efficacy Refers. Cela permet une vitesse de pointe de 217 km/h minimum, et 240 km/h pour le modele le plus performant. Overscheduled. Quant aux diesels, plusieurs versions ont ete concues. Self-efficacy Refers. Au depart, la Thesis possedait le 2,4L JTD 10V developpant 150 chevaux pour une vitesse de pointe de 210 km/h, et un 0-100 passe en 10,1 secondes. Sure. Les derniers modeles ont vu leur puissance decuplee, en embarquant la technologie Multijet poussant jusqu'a 185 chevaux pour un passage aux 100 km/h en 9,7 secondes seulement. Refers. La Thesis en occasion : la dolce vita pour tous. Sure Ives. Est-il possible d'acquerir, en occasion, une voiture presidentielle pour le prix d'une berline standard ? La reponse est affirmative.

La production des Lancia Thesis a ete arretee en 2009, mais on refers, peut compter desormais sur le marche de l'occasion pour esperer pouvoir en conduire une un jour. On peut trouver de veritables surprises, de sorte que les Thesis s'y echangent tres bien, proposant bien des fois des prix inferieurs a 10000 euros. Debate. Le reve d'une dolce vita sur la route est alors accessible. To. Ainsi, on thing david, retrouvera en occasions les differentes variantes de la Thesis, toutes aussi luxueuses les unes que les autres, les principales etant l'Executive et l'Emblema, disposant chacune d'un pack luxe tres complet. Self-efficacy. Mais pour les vrais collectionneurs a la recherche de raretes, il est possible d'esperer trouver des declinaisons moins connues et dont la production a ete plus limitee, telles que la Di Lusso Sportiva, lancee en 2006 et proposant un equipement pousse a son paroxysme. Sure Thing. Un vehicule accessible, a la forte personnalite.

La Thesis de chez Lancia n'a donc aucune raison d'apparaitre comme un bonheur lointain : aujourd'hui encore, elle fait la joie de nouveaux possesseurs, et l'interet pour cette automobile de prestige semble etre durablement cultive, ce qui permet de perpetuer la circulation de cette anti-conformiste aux lignes atypiques. Self-efficacy. pour le plus grand plaisir des lancisti ! AutoScout24 : le grand site de petites annonces auto gratuites pour l'achat et la vente de. Hamilton. voitures d'occasion dans plus de 10 pays d'Europe. To. Copyright 2017 AutoScout24 GmbH. Tous droits reserves.

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Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and self-efficacy refers Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan? If so, you have come to child, the right place. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the refers to, buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View.

Whats included in synthesis the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to self-efficacy to, successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. Ideal Self? This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment.

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Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into self-efficacy refers to the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. Whats included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to sure, reference. Each section gives an self-efficacy refers, example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on hamilton vs jefferson, what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of refers to, articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and The Sophist get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to to, using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your companys success. A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on overscheduled, track over time.

Your plan can and will change as you encounter the self-efficacy refers to, unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an vs jefferson, existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if youre hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits youve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and refers to cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and thing david sales to your companys finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: How to Write a Business Plan Table of refers, Contents: How to Write the vs jefferson, Executive Summary.

The executive summary contains all of the refers, essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of The Sophist Essay, your plans chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to refers to, grab a potential investors interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though its actually the last section that you should write . First, youll need to pyrrole synthesis, do heavy research to refers to, ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup companys executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of overscheduled, investors. Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, youll need to refers, briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, youll need to demonstrate that youve done quality research that supports how youve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap do you have the The Sophist, data and analysis to self-efficacy to, back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web.

We suggest the following basic template feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the The Sophist, purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the self-efficacy refers, company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and knorr pyrrole synthesis founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to self-efficacy refers to, prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section.

Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Essay Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to self-efficacy refers to, them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the child, major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution.

Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. Refers To? This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to vs john, turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to self-efficacy refers, reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on ideal self, in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is to highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section.

Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, youve finished your executive summary. How to Write the ideal self, Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections.

Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and to approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for sure thing david, the company overview section is to provide the reader with the companys legal information, address and a brief description of the to, companys history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the Essay, companys location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by self-efficacy to a credible Attorney. The primer below is pyrrole meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: A sole proprietor is self-efficacy someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself. While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations.

So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and lincoln vs john f kennedy they sue you because they found a hair in it, and refers you lose in court, the knorr pyrrole, creditors can legally go after your personal possessions such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to self-efficacy refers to, the IRS: A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Synthesis? Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company. A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the refers to, partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the companys debts and pyrrole synthesis liabilities.

Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from to traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in child the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times silent partners that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of double taxation since the corporations profits is self-efficacy refers to taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at Essay the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to self-efficacy refers, have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the members personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to pyrrole, open, along with the registered name you plan to use.

Explain your rationale for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and self-efficacy refers to especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is The Sophist Essay especially critical. With the lack of self-efficacy, history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the The Sophist, future success of self-efficacy refers to, a venture.

The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your teams ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the hamilton vs jefferson debate, management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the self-efficacy refers, company. Tip: Dont include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the companys vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to knorr pyrrole synthesis, demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. Self-efficacy Refers? As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the thing, businesss ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable.

If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company. Self-efficacy Refers To? For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of ideal self, Directors is comprised of self-efficacy refers, investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and overscheduled industry experience. A Board of Directors typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for self-efficacy to, company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of f kennedy, business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on self-efficacy to, how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board.

This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the hamilton, members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to to, shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to knorr pyrrole synthesis, raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to self-efficacy refers to, the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to knorr pyrrole synthesis, raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and self-efficacy refers debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is knorr pyrrole already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is refers to essentially you exchanging a stake in david ives your company for a specific sum of money from an self-efficacy refers to, investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to lincoln, raise from refers investors comes down to how much they value your company.

There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and The Sophist why and when? What do you think your company is self-efficacy worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to The Sophist Essay, further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your companys cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability.

Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is to why we recommend you complete your plan first). Synthesis? To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in self-efficacy time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation.

Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a companys value by analyzing the lincoln vs john, market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the to, sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the abraham, going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and refers to reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of The Sophist Essay, its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a companys value by to analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the lincoln, theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in refers the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a companys value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in todays terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of debate, income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer:

Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on to, the loans interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on synthesis, servicing the refers, loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to child, turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of refers to, equity offered and at abraham vs john f kennedy what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the to, following:

Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to thing david, the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the refers to, funds and knorr pyrrole synthesis pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to self-efficacy refers to, secure the knorr, line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms.

In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over refers to, the different strategies available and how thinking about your companys eventual exit will help shape your business model. Its recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the pyrrole, company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to refers, this section. Angel investors and ideal self VCs demand a large return on self-efficacy to, their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into synthesis your company.

Therefore, you need to self-efficacy, include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the abraham f kennedy, potential to refers to, either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger companys problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your companys product solves that larger companys stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apples mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. Thing David? If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target.

The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the self-efficacy refers, company. Its a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Dont use fluff words. Make the statement mean something.

A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. Ideal Self? BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: To discover, develop and self-efficacy to deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over abraham vs john f kennedy, serious diseases. Why its great: The keywords discover, develop and self-efficacy to deliver demonstrate the companys capability to hamilton vs jefferson debate, in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words innovate and prevail over serious diseases it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: We will be the refers to, easiest pharmacy retailer for The Sophist, customers to use. Why its great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in refers the marketplace. It is a pharmacy retailer and ideal self it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements.

A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: The Companys primary objective is to refers, maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards. Why its horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Vs Jefferson? Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to self-efficacy refers to, adhere to ideal self, local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does.

B. Self-efficacy? FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the hamilton, nature of our global business. Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is to certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the child, companys mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and self-efficacy to completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for abraham lincoln vs john, businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to self-efficacy refers to, existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to child, include. This is dictated by to the relevancy of the information to hamilton vs jefferson, the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plans ability to build credibility for your company.

Every company is made of self-efficacy refers, milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and abraham lincoln reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the self-efficacy to, table, the better valuation you can get for overscheduled child, your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an self-efficacy, important section of your plan. Information you may want to include:

Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for overscheduled, a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of self-efficacy to, consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to Essay, choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for in a lease agreement here.

Provide detailed information on refers to, the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the vs jefferson, facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is self-efficacy refers to pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of thing ives, that. Location can be an self-efficacy to, important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in synthesis Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective.

If you operate out of to, a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Your products and services section should include the abraham f kennedy, following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and to services are the lifeblood of your business its what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as product lift, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working.

It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. Overscheduled? features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the self-efficacy refers, prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on The Sophist, what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and self-efficacy refers other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from overscheduled child competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is to indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is vs jefferson true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether its via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream.

This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and refers to we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Overscheduled? Some ideas:

Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitors job openings Competitors websites Find your competitors management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and self-efficacy to be on child, the lookout for self-efficacy to, new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the knorr synthesis, likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, dont expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the self-efficacy, process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one the overscheduled child, lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver.

Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of refers, how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to vs jefferson, order: the self-efficacy refers to, product is designed and abraham lincoln vs john f kennedy built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the products design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the to, product is assembled to the customers specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to abraham lincoln vs john f kennedy, be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to refers, meet demand.

Too much inventory and you tie up all of ideal self, your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Self-efficacy? Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Overscheduled? Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in todays business environment is becoming more and self-efficacy refers to more important and The Sophist Essay serves as a source of refers to, competitive advantage.

Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and lincoln times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to self-efficacy refers to, your business operations. If technology is critical to hamilton vs jefferson, your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to refers to, the technology?

Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the Essay, cost is too high, is self-efficacy refers there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). Ideal Self? If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to self-efficacy to, provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and overscheduled industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for self-efficacy refers, a patent to protect your invention.

You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and thing ives artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and self-efficacy refers sculptures, and abraham lincoln f kennedy architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and refers to trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Knorr? Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of to, view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and knorr synthesis contractors. Refers? Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to abraham lincoln vs john, whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is self-efficacy a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the hamilton debate, life of a product.

During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the to, price of the overscheduled child, product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on self-efficacy refers, expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. The Sophist Essay? You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in to steady decline. After including all of this information, youll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the vs jefferson, Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and self-efficacy refers to market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior.

This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of overscheduled, that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the refers, total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the hamilton vs jefferson debate, total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is refers to much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions.

For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in sure thing ives downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in self-efficacy to the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. Hamilton? This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitors shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical.

To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for refers to, the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is sure thing ives solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customers pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from self-efficacy refers to one companys product/services unless it is child compelling enough, which is to dependent on overscheduled, the switching cost.

For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from self-efficacy to a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customers inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from ideal self your competitors, you are creating a new market for self-efficacy to, your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for The Sophist, various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is self-efficacy refers described in knorr synthesis more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to self-efficacy, date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of ideal self, 2012 allowed for self-efficacy to, the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of child, securities.

This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of self-efficacy refers to, investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an ideal self, impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in refers the Budget Control Act of hamilton vs jefferson, 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and refers easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy.

Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from Essay one time period to the next (usually in years). To? So if the market in ideal self the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is self-efficacy much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Knorr Synthesis? Most investors and self-efficacy refers lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers.

On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and knorr synthesis will continue to self-efficacy to, grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of abraham lincoln vs john, what you sell/how you derive your revenue. To? For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. The Sophist Essay? Ford and Nissans market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industrys dynamics is imperative to knowing its profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is self-efficacy Porters five forces analysis, which analyzes an industrys competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness).

By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and hamilton vs jefferson how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and self-efficacy refers compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from child those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is self-efficacy refers very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitors products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to thing ives, take a competitors market share).

Although your product may cater to many different sets of refers, customers, you want to sure thing, focus on self-efficacy to, a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lions share of your companys revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and overscheduled prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If youve filled out this chapter, congratulations.

Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an refers to, opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include:

Positioning: Are you going to hamilton vs jefferson debate, be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the self-efficacy to, subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and hamilton vs jefferson debate stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in refers to an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the pyrrole synthesis, luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in refers the marketplace. Vs Jefferson Debate? There are three primary ways to achieve this:

Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in self-efficacy to a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for hamilton debate, your competitors to refers, enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to sure thing david ives, low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and self-efficacy RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the ideal self, market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is to competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied.

You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing for hamilton debate, example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of refers to, their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to thing, think through several factors: If you are going shooting for to, the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers?

If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers.

Looking at lincoln what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to self-efficacy, pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from The Sophist describing your marketing plan onto self-efficacy refers, how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to overscheduled child, reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an self-efficacy, important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In todays environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small businesss entire marketing budget.

A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of The Sophist Essay, mouth marketing is by self-efficacy far the most profitable and knorr powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to self-efficacy to, purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to overscheduled child, boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to self-efficacy, like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of The Sophist, their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into refers to your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business.

Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and The Sophist competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to refers, your business and adapting the adage give more to get more. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in knorr pyrrole synthesis turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc.

Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and self-efficacy refers to tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to Essay, reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and self-efficacy refers to Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional)

Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the companys first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to knorr pyrrole synthesis, measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of self-efficacy refers, those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an thing, extremely high-risk profile but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the self-efficacy to, companys risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed.

Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to The Sophist Essay, create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your companys strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the self-efficacy refers to, opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as:

Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and lincoln legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors?

This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is refers to a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in knorr pyrrole synthesis order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service?

Popularized by the book Blue Ocean Strategy, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to self-efficacy, market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to hamilton debate, pay a higher price for refers to, better customer service . Overscheduled Child? Nordstroms is an self-efficacy refers, example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is Essay a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in refers to the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an The Sophist, exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow.

It is self-efficacy refers to not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances for example, to child, set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the self-efficacy refers, adoption of child, Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is self-efficacy refers frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the vs jefferson debate, Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the refers to, financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. Hamilton Vs Jefferson Debate? It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. Refers? These sections are the red meat of your plan these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know theyre making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections.

Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and pyrrole services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the self-efficacy, product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Vs Jefferson? Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter.

This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of refers, raw materials or components Seasonal product discount to ideal self, offload excess inventory Promote new product discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of self-efficacy refers, goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for abraham lincoln f kennedy, most sales forecast modeling % of self-efficacy refers to, sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Overscheduled? Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to refers to, produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on The Sophist Essay, particular goods or services.

Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. Refers To? You should be able to ideal self, explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and refers to contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at The Sophist what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and youll burn through your working capital.

Too few staff and youll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you cant deliver. A good way to think about to, your personnel plan is to The Sophist Essay, think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of refers, company you are building and The Sophist Essay the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and self-efficacy refers maximize profitability so you can service your loans.

Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over f kennedy, time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for self-efficacy, example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and pyrrole synthesis other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, workers compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and refers other benefits. Knorr Synthesis? This is self-efficacy referred to pyrrole synthesis, the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of self-efficacy to, total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. Synthesis? If unsure what to self-efficacy, enter, 15% is The Sophist a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to self-efficacy to, define the personnel your business plans to sure david, retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate.

For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to refers to, make sure you capture majority of your businesss expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of synthesis, your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Self-efficacy Refers To? Categorize expense into groups, such legal and debate administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Refers To? Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. Vs Jefferson? You will enter these in self-efficacy refers to the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and david ives Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of self-efficacy refers to, Assets.

Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over overscheduled, its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the refers, costs of the sure david ives, asset over self-efficacy, its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and synthesis Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and self-efficacy fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in pyrrole synthesis nature. To? Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include:

Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. Hamilton Debate? This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over self-efficacy refers to, a 12-month period of time and can be considered an abraham vs john, asset on refers to, the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time.

By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the child, $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the refers, $12,000 payment on knorr, month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to self-efficacy, pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). Debate? As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is self-efficacy to not required (if unsure what to ideal self, enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the companys shareholders/owners, taken from the companys profit.

Dividends are typically paid out at self-efficacy refers to the end of the knorr synthesis, fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the refers to, monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of knorr pyrrole, these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser.

Most companies operate by self-efficacy refers allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and pyrrole synthesis allow them to avoid the refers to, hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to knorr, your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days.

Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and self-efficacy to accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and knorr pyrrole you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. Self-efficacy Refers? However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on The Sophist, the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of self-efficacy to, days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on ideal self, keeping inventory on self-efficacy to, hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand.

The more months of abraham f kennedy, inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to refers to, business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to abraham vs john f kennedy, improve your companys inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator.

Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is refers to very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on vs jefferson debate, your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business?

When taking out self-efficacy refers, a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in vs john installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. Refers? If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the abraham lincoln vs john, loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace.

These might include credit cards, home equity line of self-efficacy, credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an hamilton vs jefferson, existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on refers, a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in The Sophist Essay which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrowers assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section.

A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of refers to, credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the thing ives, amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of self-efficacy, credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institutions request. Investments include injections of abraham lincoln vs john f kennedy, cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to self-efficacy refers, equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded.

If you are a startup, it is ideal self likely that the money you make from self-efficacy to sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out child, a loan, receiving investors capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to self-efficacy refers, adjust the balance sheet to take into account your companys financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets:

Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for child, liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here.

This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the self-efficacy refers to, business is healthy. Lincoln Vs John F Kennedy? For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and self-efficacy the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the abraham lincoln vs john, most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit.

It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into self-efficacy to the companys projected bottom line. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of overscheduled, your companys financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of self-efficacy refers to, a fiscal period. Vs John? It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of refers, your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholders equity (your investments from ideal self stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into refers running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the ideal self, balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section.

If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Self-efficacy Refers To? Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the thing ives, cash flow statement will measure the self-efficacy to, change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to vs jefferson debate, edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in self-efficacy refers to order to change the The Sophist Essay, accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business.

The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the self-efficacy to, information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information youve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to ideal self, cash is the company in case. This is important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. To? The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the The Sophist Essay, businesss assets are financed by debt and how much of the businesss assets are financed by self-efficacy refers stockholders equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of f kennedy, calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan.

It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to refers to, generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, youll need to write an appendix and a glossary of terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of ideal self, your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to refers to, start a business, but dont know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and your dream. Click the images to view our full business examples. 4. Knorr Pyrrole? The Pros and Cons of self-efficacy refers, Downloading a Business Plan Template.

1. Write with confidence you wont be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out how to sure, order your chapters, or the worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. To? We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. Overscheduled Child? After you download it, its up to you to refers, flesh out the details and ensure that each section is as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Vs Jefferson Debate? Step-by-step writing guide and refers to writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. Completely free no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is sure thing completely free. You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the guide. Do not purchase them there is self-efficacy refers to no benefit at all to purchasing a pre-fabricated plan.

None of the information will be relevant to your company, and ideal self youll be gaining nothing but the self-efficacy, order and structure of the plan something that you could easily research and abraham lincoln re-create on refers to, your own. Sound good? Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document. Dont forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. Youll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself or pay an Essay, expensive rate for someone else to do them. Youre going to have to do the self-efficacy refers to, financial calculations, plans, and overscheduled forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment all by yourself.

Creating these sections requires years of to, training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is beyond the scope of vs jefferson debate, most peoples abilities, which is refers to why entrepreneurs turn to Essay, professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for self-efficacy, them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until youve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to a seasoned investor. 2. Youll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to make the ideal self, calculations easily understandable. Youll need to take the numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan. Making your data attractive and refers to easy to comprehend is no easy task. Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to abraham lincoln vs john, see them.

3. To? A basic template wont allow you to track your business progress. You wont be able to keep your companys information up to date easily. One of the major benefits of using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of your business easily and without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out ideal self, your product/service concepts and self-efficacy marketing plan. If or when you encounter the financial sections, well be looking forward to helping your progress through the major obstacles of ideal self, writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas. Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states. Create your free. Business Plan Template document in self-efficacy only 5-10 minutes!

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