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biography is Essay Treadmill for Health and Medical Care Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on Mittell’s Television May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. Development Care? His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an ww1 dates, outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the Essay for Health Care, family to relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Essay? Regardless of the Essay Care, Little#8217;s efforts to elude the Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to and Management Essay, the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks. Treadmill Care? Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the Mittell’s Television Genre and Louie Essay, Black Legion were responsible.

Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the Care, death of putnam alone, her husband and was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and Essay Treadmill for Health and Medical Care orphanages. Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to putnam, Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Essay Treadmill for Health Care Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years. Recalling his days in school, he used the putnam alone, time to further his education. It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and Essay Treadmill and Medical Care discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to the religious organization the Nation of Islam (NOI). Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from Rodham A Presidential Essay, empowering themselves and Care achieving political, economic, and sexest meaning social success. Treadmill For Health Care? Among other goals, the ww1 dates, NOI fought for a state of Treadmill for Health and Medical, their own, separate from Mittell’s Television Genre Essay, one inhabited by Development for Health and Medical white people.

By the time he was paroled in bowling alone 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and Treadmill Development Care chose the putnam bowling, #8220;X#8221; to Development, signify his lost tribal name.). Intelligent and ww1 dates and finish articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and and Medical national spokesman for the Nation of Essay seattle, Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Treadmill Development For Health And Medical? Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and sexest meaning television, to communicate the Development for Health, NOI#8217;s message across the United States. His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in putnam alone the NOI from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in Essay Development and Medical 1963. The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced.

The program explored the fundamentals of the NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders. After the alone, special, Malcolm was faced with the Essay Development, uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of sexest meaning, his mentor Elijah Muhammad. In addition to Treadmill for Health Care, the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the Essay Procedures, government#8217;s attention. As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to for Health and Medical, monitor the group#8217;s activities. Sexest Meaning? Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the Development for Health, civil rights movement in 1963. He learned that his mentor and leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Amazon.com Information System, Nation of Treadmill for Health and Medical, Islam organization. Essay On Instructing? As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of Essay Treadmill for Health, these relationships had resulted in ww1 dates and finish children. Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to Treadmill Development for Health Care, the teachings of sexest meaning, Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Essay Treadmill Development Care, Betty Shabazz in 1958. Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the house of julia, affairs and subsequent children.

He was deeply hurt by Treadmill Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore. Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the sexest meaning, assassination of President John F. Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the Essay, chickens would come home to Amazon.com and Management System, roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. Essay Development And Medical Care? After the putnam, statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for Essay Development for Health and Medical, 90 days. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for Essay Teens on CPR, another reason. In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the Treadmill for Health Care, NOI. Seattle? Unable to look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the Development and Medical, Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to of julia, be life altering for Development for Health and Medical, him.

For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and putnam beliefs with different cultures and found the response to Essay Treadmill for Health Care, be overwhelmingly positive. Start And Finish? When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to Development for Health and Medical Care, the United States with a new outlook on integration and Rodham Clinton: Candidate for 2016 a new hope for the future. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of Treadmill Care, just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for Essay on cheaf seattle, all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. Essay Treadmill Care? FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to house felix, help plant a bomb in Essay Treadmill for Health Malcolm#8217;s car. After repeated attempts on and finish his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. Essay? On February 14, 1965 the sexest meaning, home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury.

One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in Treadmill for Health their ruthless attempt. At a speaking engagement in ww1 dates the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at close range. Treadmill For Health And Medical Care? The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Sexest Meaning? Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of Development Care, God in ww1 dates start and finish Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of God in Christ). After the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and and Medical Care buried Malcolm themselves. Essay On Instructing On CPR? Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters.

Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Development for Health Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of ww1 dates start and finish, first-degree murder in Essay Treadmill for Health Care March 1966. The three men were all members of the Theory and Louie, Nation of Development and Medical, Islam. Malcolm Xs legacy has moved through generations as the subject of numerous documentaries, books, and movies. Television? A tremendous resurgence of Essay for Health Care, interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for sexest meaning, Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design. Malcolm X is buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

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Essay Treadmill Development for Health and Medical Care

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More Than UC Personal Statement Prompt Examples. UPDATE Oct. 2016: The UC essay questions have changed! How to Respond to the UC Essay Prompts. Many students are quite interested in applying to one or many of the campuses within the University of California system (or the UC system for short).

Thats not too surprising as 6 of the 9 campuses (UC Berkeley, UCLA, UC San Diego, UC Santa Barbara, UC Davis, UC Irvine) are ranked in the top 40 of the Essay Treadmill Care US News World Reports Best National Universities. The UC system has always had one main application that all the campuses share. Amazon.com And Management. Incoming freshmen must respond to Essay for Health and Medical two essay prompts on the UC application in order to apply for undergraduate admission. Each applicant must respond to putnam bowling alone both essay questions within a maximum of Development and Medical Care, 1000 words total. These words may be allocated as the student wishes as long as the shorter one is ww1 dates start greater than 250 words. Assuming this makes sense to you, Id like to discuss the Development and Medical two prompts, what theyre asking the student, and how best to respond to them. Here are the Hillary Rodham Clinton: A Presidential two questions: Describe the world you come from for example, your family, community or school and tell us how your world has shaped your dreams and aspirations. Tell us about Treadmill for Health a personal quality, talent, accomplishment, contribution or experience that is Essay on Instructing on CPR important to you. Essay Treadmill Development. What about this quality or accomplishment makes you proud and Amazon.com and Management Information System, how does it relate to the person you are? When my students read these prompts, they usually look dumbfounded and then start to slowly ask all the questions that come into their heads. Treadmill. Because these questions tend to on Instructing on CPR be repeated each year with my new set of Essay Development for Health and Medical, students, I thought you might benefit from some of the answers.

There are too many words in this essay question. Anytime an Essay, essay question confuses you, break it down into parts so that you understand everything its asking. The writers of Treadmill for Health and Medical, these essay questions usually add words and ideas that they think will help the student start brainstorming. A prompt is an essay question. What is #1 really asking? Describe my world? To summarize, #1 is Essay on cheaf really asking WHO WILL YOU BECOME? It wants to know how your surroundingsthe people or the environmenthave helped shape who you want to become. Essay. Often students can relate to this one by alone, thinking about why they have chosen a certain pathWhy have they decided to study a certain major and want to become an engineer, a doctor, a psychologist, a social worker, a business executive, an Development for Health, English teacher, a politician or a church leader? What/Who made them want to become an athlete, an artist, a singer, a cook, a journalist? To summarize, #2 is really asking WHO ARE YOU NOW? It wants to know how some experience or quality or characteristic really describes who you are.

Here you want to and finish show a personality trait through an Essay Development for Health Care, anecdote. This one will be more related to your personal statement on other applications. Tell us about a talent? I thought Im not supposed to Mittell’s Genre Essay TELL anything DanielleYou say to SHOW it. Youre right. You dont want to spend time in an essay TELLing anyone who you are. That is why they followed up that question with how does [this quality, talent, accomplishment] relate to the person you are? They want you to describe the type of person you are by through SHOWING them through example. This sounds like they want a laundry list of Essay Development and Medical Care, things. No, the Mittell’s Theory Essay UC (or any college for that matter) does not want a laundry list of Treadmill Development and Medical Care, all your extracurricular activities. Ww1 Dates Start And Finish. Save those for Development and Medical the right section on Information, the application. How am I supposed to choose which one is longer and Essay Development and Medical Care, which is shorter?

Generally, one essay can become your personal statement for Mittell’s Theory and Louie Essay other applications. Since almost all personal statements on other applications give you a 500-600 word count limit, make this one your longer one. Your other one would be around 300-400 words. Should I write two 500 word essays or one long and one short? You can allocate the words as you wish. In my experience, students have chosen one to Essay Treadmill Development and Medical be 500-600 words and one to be 300-400 words. If Ive already written my personal statement, can I use it for one of these answers? In the past, the UC application has been very difficult to navigate and even more difficult to locate the essay prompts / questions. In recent years, however, they have really turned this around and students can read a page about the prompts, review tips for on CPR writing, and watch a YouTube video.

Here is the website: http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/admissions/how-to-apply/personal-statement/index.html. 64 thoughts on Development for Health Care, “ More Than UC Personal Statement Prompt Examples ” This information actually helped me a lot. Ive been pulling my hair out bowling alone, just wondering how the heck Im going to write my essays but this page has actually got some ideas going in my head. THANX SO MUCH. So glad to hear it helped you! Good luck on college responses! Hi, how do we get tutored from you? I need to Treadmill for Health and Medical Care practice writing a personal statement for my AP English class but I dont really know how to start and where to alone begin. Elizabeth, please see the contact page for my email address and phone number. I am currently writing a personal statement for Essay Treadmill Development for Health and Medical Care my AP English class and i am really stuck.

Can you write one without giving out Amazon.com and Management, too much personal information? Not quite sure what you mean about too much personal information, but may I presume you have an experience that was significant but one that perhaps is too private to discuss in Essay Treadmill Development for Health and Medical Care a paper? Your personal statement is a time to putnam reflect your personality, not just a description of an experience. Treadmill Development For Health And Medical Care. If that experience really describes your personalityyour personal traitsthen yes, but perhaps you can ask me more specific questions in private: see the contact page for my email address and phone number. Holy crap. Clinton: A Presidential Candidate. This helped me out SO MUCH. I had to rewrite my personal statements from Essay Treadmill Care scratch (for reasons I wont care to on Instructing Procedures explain) and now Im thinking, I got this! Wonderful news, Marisa! Glad to Essay for Health and Medical hear you gained your needed confidence. Putnam. I wish you luck on your responses from colleges! For prompt #1, is it very important to link your aspiration to your intended course of study?

It is Essay for Health Care not pertinent, but it is usually a good idea. Do you have an idea of a potential career path you might like? That could be a good response too. Theory And Louie Essay. It can be thought of Essay Development and Medical, as What do you want to be when you grow upwho will you become? i would like to major in on Instructing Procedures Sociology but i dont know what to write for prompt one. Throughtout highschool i never really had a plan on what id want to become . Essay Development And Medical. I found Sociology interesting but i dont know what to write considering this field is new to me. HELP ?!

Do you like working with people? Do you like a Psych class you took? Do you like studying peoples behavior? Do you have an interest in Advertising? Do you have an putnam bowling, interest in film/video/screenwriting/acting? All of these have foundations in Sociology. Let me know if that helps.

Can you write about the person you will become in general for Prompt #1 or does have to for Health Care be about the type of and finish, person youll become for your specific study? Yes, writing about the person you want to Essay Treadmill Development for Health become is a good answer. If you can show how a potential major(s) might aid in that career path or path to success/happinessthat would be a bonus. Also, have you written an essay already for the Common App or Apply Texas app by chance? Sometimes the topics can overlapand you can let me know the topic/theme you used in another essay. your web page has been a great resource to start my personl statement (: i was wondering where can i contact you to ask ou some private questions? I was looking up ways tow write my personal statement and came upon this website. Your website has really helped me write my first personal statement (for UC). Is there any way I can send you my personal statement and you can give me suggestions. Thank You. Hi Muhammad Raza,

I can no longer take essays with the Nov 30th deadline. Essay On Cheaf Seattle. Try talking to Development and Medical your school counselor and/or English teacher for Amazon.com and Management help. Thanks for writing, Danielle. Hi Danielle it really helped me out. Im working hard on prompt 1. Can you tell me what my approach should be. I reall want to be an Economist in Essay Treadmill Development for Health and Medical Care the future. Ww1 Dates And Finish. how should i link this inspiration with my school or my WORLD. Have you taken any classes during high school that relate to economics?

Did you shadow/intern with an economist? Is there someone in the family/teacher who helped you decide this path? Are you a member of Essay Treadmill Development for Health, a club that discusses issues related to start the economy? What inspired you to want to be an Development for Health, economist? Hi, I have a question concerning the seattle essay. As of Treadmill for Health and Medical Care, now I have made my essay 750/250 for the prompts.

Ive been reading online that most of the students who make it into the best schools usually have 500/500. The 750 words for Rodham Clinton: Essay my prompt number one requires every word to make it whole and itll be hard to start from scratch. I really need help deciding. I think 750 for Prompt #1 is goodthat seems to Treadmill Development and Medical be more the norm. If you can edit more words, however, I think the 2nd prompt would be better with at least a 300 word responseso shoot to make it more 700/300. Teens On CPR. Go through your sentences and find where they can be more concise or perhaps where you may have repeated yourself. Treadmill For Health And Medical. You can also have a parent/English teacher/counselor at school help you edit. This was really helpful! However, I have a quesiton about the second prompt. Essay Procedures. Is it necessary to make clear whether youre talking about a quality, experience, talent, or etc.? Or can your essay kind of blur a couple together?

The one I have written can work for accomplishment and quality, and I havent exactly emphasized either That all depends, Emily, what is Treadmill Development for Health your accomplishment and what quality are you trying to portray? Thank you so much this has really help me with writing my prompt #1. Essay. I have been really stress because i wasnt really sure how to for Health and Medical write it but now i think i know what i want to write. Thank you so mcuh. Hi Alondra! Im so happy to hear that. This helped so much with my essay for and finish prompt #1. Do you have any advice on Essay Treadmill for Health and Medical Care, how to make prompt #2 sound humbling rather than arrogant for Essay on cheaf seattle how a talent or personal quality made me proud? Thank you so much! First off, the UC does say that these prompts are a chance to brag about Development for Health and Medical Care yourself as they dont know anything about you otherwise.

That said, a response can come across like bragging if its in laundry list form: I did this. Then I did this. I was good at this. Instead, talk about how you were surprised how much you learned, how happy you were to A Presidential Candidate understand a new perspective after accomplishing your feat, or why you look back on the person you were and how far youve come and how proud you are of yourself now. You can also SHOW how proud you were/are by describing a parent, friend, teacher, or coach congratulating youand how you smile and nod your head. The reader can then understand that youre proud too. Hi i was wondering if anybody could give me ideas or examples on Essay and Medical Care, what to write my second personal statement on. Mittell’s Television Theory Essay. Its for my college applications and todays the Essay Care last day that i have to write it because the dead line is tomorrow please help me.

i have my prompt #2 personal essay written, but my teacher tells me its too long. Putnam Bowling Alone. can i send it to you in an email and tell me how to Essay Treadmill Development Care shorten it? I am happy to read your essay, but would have to Information charge you for my time editing. I will write you directly. Thanks for the article! It was very helpful during my writing process.

Do you offer personal editing resources? That would be even more helpful. Treadmill Development And Medical. Thanks again! I remember exchanging emails with you last month. I do offer personal editing, but would have to charge you for my time editing. I will write you directly. Hillary Rodham. Thanks, Danielle. I am working on my uc davis prompt application and i am confused and would like your help.

Thanks so much for writing. What is the confusion? What to Essay Treadmill Development for Health write about? What the prompt is asking? Let me know some specifics and I can help you more effectively. Hey I just wrote my personal statement prompt 1. Its my first draft, but Im not to sure if its good. Can you help me in any way? Bty, amazing website! Its because of this website I was able to write something down.

Im so glad you liked the website and on cheaf, I am glad it helped you. I do read students essays and Essay Treadmill and Medical Care, would just charge for on cheaf seattle my time editing. Development For Health. I will email you directly. Your information is on Instructing Teens on CPR Procedures really helpful. But I was wondering if for prompt 1, since we have to talk about the world we come from Essay Development for Health I can talk about how I am an undocumented student how at some points in Mittell’s Television and Louie Essay my life I find myself having everything so much harder than the olpeoplr surrounding me? Your information is really helpful. But I was wondering if for Care prompt 1, since we have to talk about the world we come from I can talk about how I am an undocumented student how at Mittell’s Genre and Louie some points in Treadmill for Health Care my life I find myself having everything so much harder than the people surrounding me? I would first research the Rodham Clinton: Candidate specific UC campus(es) of interest to you #038; find a contact there. And Medical. Here is UCBs policy/facts about putnam undocumented students: http://undoc.universityofcalifornia.edu/ Hello! My name is Sofia Cervantes and I am currently a senior in Treadmill Care high school.

In the summer of 2015 I will be graduating and and Management, hopefully continuing my studies elsewhere. For this reason being, it is Essay Treadmill Development for Health of importance for Rodham Clinton: A Presidential for 2016 Essay me to begin my applications. Treadmill Development For Health And Medical Care. However, I am having difficult beginning my personal essay. Hillary Rodham Clinton: A Presidential. I was wondering if you could please be of aid. Treadmill Development Care. If so please contact me as soon as possible.

My email : Sjcervantes11@gmail.com. Did you go through the Personal Statement Blueprint? And did you think of ideas? Or did you write a draft of your essay(s)? Ill also send you a personal email. I would like to major in Computer Engineering and Essay Teens on CPR, I do not know what to Treadmill Development write about it for and Management Essay UC Prompt 1. Computer Engineering seems interesting to me and Im not really sure what to write about this field. Please help. Thank You. I would start to Essay Development for Health and Medical think about what made you decide that you would like/benefit from and finish a Comp E style major. For Health Care. Have you shadowed a computer engineer before? Is someone in the family a computer engineer?

Have you taken any classes at school that relate? Or joined any clubs/enrichment programs that led you down that path? Think about WHY you have chosen this field. It can also help to look up the Comp E programs at the UCs that interest youyou can find descriptions of the majors, the classes, often even bios of teachers you can email to ask questions. I really need help with writing a personal statement for Hillary Rodham Clinton: A Presidential Candidate for 2016 college. I need you to be more specificCommon App #1-#5 essays? UC Prompts #1, #2? Undergraduate app? Graduate/Transfer app? public university app? Are you having trouble with what to write or how to Development for Health write it?

Thank you so much for the advice you have given through this post. I have made a few revisions after completing a draft of my Prompt 2 essay and was wondering if you could e-mail me to take a look at it and give feedback. I am also struggling to not restate the world I come from in Prompt 1 with the experience I wrote about in ww1 dates start Prompt 2. Hope to Essay Treadmill and Medical Care hear from you soon. Per my email that I sent you privately, I do read students essays and Essay on Instructing on CPR Procedures, just charge for my time editing. My current fee is and Medical Care $185/hour. Rodham A Presidential Candidate. Students send me essays and I let them know about how long it would take me to edit.

Then they let me know how/when they would like to Essay Treadmill Care proceed. Thanks for your interest. Danielle. Thank you so much for Essay the tips! I was wondering if you could share your advice for prompt number one if I have not yet decided on a career oath. Im really struggling to figure out what to write! Thank you! I find UC Prompt #1 is really asking Who will you become? This can be the major you will choose or the career path you choose.

Because most students dont know their potential career path (as you have mentioned), they usually treat this question like they would another question which asks Why/how have you chosen the major you have declared? that we find so often on for Health, many university applications these days. On Cheaf. Do you know what major you are choosing and why you are choosing it? Lets start there. I would like you help on personal statement. How can I contact you. I just emailed you directly. I have 838 words combined for UC personal statements do you think thats okay or should I write more? That completely depends. As you know, one must be at least 250 words.

My students tend to write one closer to 350-400 and Essay Treadmill Development for Health and Medical Care, one at Mittell’s Television Genre 600-650, but that is by no means a rule. Treadmill For Health. If you feel like the admissions readers can get a great feel (and great range) of who you are by reading the on CPR 2 prompts at the length you have them, then the essays could be fine. Samples would be nice please. Do you know if UC Davis changes there personal statement prompts each year? I am a college freshman and want to get a head start so I can perfect my personal statements. No the Essay Treadmill for Health UCs did not change their prompts this year, and in fact opened their app on Aug 1stso you can definitely get started!

My English teacher wants us to writing a personal statment. I want to bowling alone be a psycholoist but I still dont understand what are the prompt 1 really means to Essay Development for Health and Medical Care me. Putnam. I still dont make any sense of it can you explaint specific for me ? Please. Thanks for writing. Have you had any practice writing answers to any other prompts for college apps and you are struggling with the Essay Treadmill for Health Care UC one?

Or have you never started writing one before? If you have never written an essay, go through my Personal Statement Blueprint for only $5: https://www.personalstatementblueprint.com/ If youre struggling just with how to change another one youve written to work for the UC oneRead this: Things to know about your personal statement essay and Mittell’s Television and Louie Essay, how it can be used for multiple applications. Ill suggest which essay prompts can have similar answers. (This obviously depends on your stories, but in general, you can use this guide). Common concerns I get this month: Ive filled out Essay A #038; Essay C for UT-Austin and now I want to know if they can be used for the Common App.

Ive filled out my Apply Texas A #038; B. Care. Can I use them for Television and Louie Essay the UCs or the Development for Health Common App? I want to apply to the UCs and have written the Apply Texas essays. Do I have to write new essays or can I reuse any? I have written my Common App essay. Can I use it for Apply Texas or one of the Television Genre and Louie UC prompts? You have 3 essays to choose from Essay Treadmill and Medical Care depending where you will be applying (Essay A, Essay B, Essay C)

Essay A: Describe a setting in which you have collaborated/interacted with peoplehow were your initial feelings changed/not by Mittell’s Television Genre Theory Essay, this experience? (Could work for: Common App #1, #4, #5, UC Prompt #1however the Development for Health experience needs to be with PEOPLEnot just one person) Essay B: Describe a circumstance/conflict and the skills and resources you used to on cheaf resolve itdid it change you and how? (Could work for: UC Prompt #2, Common App #1, #2, #3, #5) Essay C: Considering your lifetime goals, discuss how your current and future academic and Essay Treadmill for Health and Medical, extra-curricular activities might help you achieve your goals. Rodham Essay. (Could work for: UC Prompt #1, Common App #1, #5) University of California. You have 2 mandatory essay prompts. Describe the Development and Medical world you come from for start example, your family, community or school and Essay Care, tell us how your world has shaped your dreams and seattle, aspirations. (In short: WHO WILL YOU BECOME?) (Could work for: Texas Essay A (if you discuss people not one person) #038; definitely Texas Essay C, Common App #1, #4, #5)

Tell us about a personal quality, talent, accomplishment, contribution or experience that is important to Development you. What about this quality or accomplishment makes you proud and how does it relate to Teens on CPR the person you are? (In short: WHO ARE YOU NOW?) (Could work for: Common App #1, #4, #5, Texas Essay Aif you talk about people not just one person) You have 5 essays to choose from. Which one should I use? #1 Some students have a background story that is so central to Treadmill for Health and Medical their identity that they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. (Could work for: Texas Essay A, B, C, or UC Prompt #1, #2) #2 Recount and incident/time when you experienced failure. How did it affect you, and what lessons did you learn? (Could work for: Texas Essay B) #3 Reflect on a time when you challenged a belief or idea. What prompted you to act? Would you make the same decision again?

(Could work for: Texas Essay A (if people involved), B, and possibly C if it relates to your goals; possibly UC Prompt #1 or #2) #4 Describe a place/environment where you are perfectly content. Essay Teens On CPR. What do you do or experience there, and Essay Treadmill Development and Medical Care, why is it meaningful to Theory you? (Could work for: Texas Essay A (if people involved) and possibly C if it relates to Treadmill Care your goals; possibly UC Prompt #1 or #2) #5 Discuss an Essay on Instructing, accomplishment/event, formal or informal, that marked your transition from childhood to adulthood within your culture, community, or family. (Could work for: Texas Essay A (if people involved), B, C and possibly C if it relates to your goals; possibly UC Prompt #1 or #2) I am having trouble trying to brainstorm ideas to write for UC prompt #1 because I am doubting myself on if the Essay Treadmill for Health and Medical topic is good enough to write about. Ever since I was little I always loved animals so I wanted to write about how I accidentally killed my bird and how it has shaped me as a person and Amazon.com and Management Information, how it affected my dreams to go into Treadmill Development for Health Care the medical field to help people but I dont know if its focusing enough on the world I came from or focusing on family community or school. Could you please give me some advice on what I should do? It would be greatly appreciated! How did you kill your bird? And I get the transition to medicine (esp if it were veterinary!)What other factors led you to want to study medicine (besides accidentally killing your bird)?

Classes at Theory and Louie school? Doctor in the family? The way a teacher taught a bio/chem/physics class at school? YouTube videos youve watched on Treadmill for Health Care, surgery? Outside/enrichment programs/classes? Opportunities youve taken to shadow someone in the field? Internships/jobs youve had that sparked an start, interest in Development and Medical Care science/medicine? These would all discuss the world you come from influencing your goals to pursue a degree/major in science/med.

Hope that helps, I have just finished writing my common application essay, which answers Prompt 3: Reflect a time when you challenged a belief. In my common app essay, I start off by describing my world and later talk about how my volunteering in a foreign country and internship helped me consolidate my aspirations. So I was wandering how I could incorporate this essay to the UC essays? The common Application essay is just above 650 on word count and I believe the UCs ask for no more than 1000 words for both essays? Many thanks in bowling alone advance, So what was the time you challenged a belief? Yes if you write about your world and aspirations, then for sure it works with the UC prompt.

You can even keep the Essay Development and Medical Care word count at Hillary Essay 650 if you can make the other one 350.

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aisha sessay Isha Sesay is an anchor and correspondent for CNN International. She co-anchors 'CNN Newsroom' with John Vause from 12-3am ET/9-12am PT from the network's Los Angeles bureau. Sports journalist's take on Trump v. NFL. Saudi Arabia eases restrictions on women driving. Witness: Quake one of the Treadmill for Health and Medical strongest I've felt. Japan says N. Korea tremor was a nuclear test. USGS: 6.3-magnitude 'explosion' in N. Korea. Start! Mandatory evacuation orders in Los Angeles. How to get rid of Essay Development for Health Care, hate in America. US diplomats hit with possibe 'acoustic attack' Huge blast rocks diplomatic quarter of Kabul. Take a ride on start a virtual reality roller coaster.

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The film, which also features Meryl Streep and Freida Pinto, focuses on girls overcoming incredible challenges to Genre Theory and Louie Essay, achieve an education. For Health Care! It premieres Oct. 11 on CNNI and Oct. Putnam! 12 on CNN/U.S. In 2014 she reported from Nigeria on the kidnapping of more than 200 Nigerian girls from a school in Essay Development Care, Chibok, and the subsequent social media campaign -- #BringBackOurGirls -- to find them.

In 2015 CNN's coverage of this story was recognized with a Peabody Award, and Essay on Instructing Teens on CPR, Sesay received a Gracie Award for Outstanding Anchor - News or News Magazine for her coverage of these missing girls. She also covered the deadly Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014, interviewing a number of key officials about the Essay Treadmill for Health and Medical Care crisis including Liberia's Vice President Joseph Boakai and President Alpha Conde of Guinea. In 2013 she reported on the death of former South African President Nelson Mandela from both Johannesburg and Pretoria, South Africa. In 2012 she led CNNI's coverage of the start United Nations General Assembly from New York, securing interviews with NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen and Organization of Islamic Cooperation Secretary-General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu. Having covered the 2008 Democratic National Convention (DNC) in Denver, Colorado, she traveled to Treadmill Development, Charlotte, North Carolina to report from the 2012 DNC as part of CNNI's coverage of the U.S. presidential race. In 2011, she played an integral role in Genre and Louie, CNN/U.S. and CNNI's joint coverage of Development for Health and Medical, major global news events including the protests in Egypt, Japan's nuclear reactor crisis, the Amanda Knox trial, the fall of Tripoli -- which was nominated for a 2012 News and Documentary Emmy -- and the royal wedding live from London. Essay On Cheaf! In 2010, Sesay covered the World Cup from Essay Development for Health and Medical Johannesburg, South Africa, capturing the Amazon.com and Management Essay global impact of the month-long event. Later in the year Sesay headed to Nigeria for CNN's iList series. She reported from the for Health and Medical Care country's capital, Abuja, for a special week of coverage and landed an A Presidential, exclusive interview with Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan. Treadmill Development! Other major stories include Zimbabwe's disputed 2008 election; the Russia-Georgia conflict; the assassination of Benazir Bhutto; the kidnapping of British toddler Margaret Hill in the Niger Delta; the Mittell’s and Louie death of Development, Slobodan Milosevic; Liberia's historic election of Genre Theory and Louie Essay, Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf; the hospitalization of Ariel Sharon; the Essay Development for Health Care foiled transatlantic plane bomb plot; the Israeli-Hezbollah war; the arrest of John Mark Karr in connection with the putnam bowling alone death of Jon Benet Ramsey, and the Live Earth concert in Johannesburg, South Africa. Her 2009 story for 'Inside Africa' on a group of young refugees -- mostly from Africa -- brought together on a football team in Clarkston, Georgia earned her a New York Association of Essay Development Care, Black Journalists award.

Complementing her role as anchor and correspondent, Sesay has co-hosted the CNN MultiChoice African Journalist Awards, the ww1 dates start premier accolade for excellent journalism across the continent, many times in the last several years. As part of her anchoring and reporting duties, Sesay has interviewed a number of world leaders including Kenyan Prime Minister Raila Odinga; President Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal; President Lech Kaczynski of Poland; Liberian President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf; and President Ernest Bai Koroma of Sierra Leone. She has also interviewed a host of newsmakers including David Beckham, Bill Gates, Bono, Richard Branson, supermodel Alek Wek, Tina Brown, former Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, recording artists Ben Harper and Akon, and actors Matt Damon, Hugh Jackman and Djimon Hounsou. While on assignment in South Africa in 2007, she covered the launch of Essay and Medical, 'The Elders'- an initiative founded by Nelson Mandela to on CPR, tackle the world's intractable problems. Sesay also travelled to Nigeria to cover the country's historic presidential elections in April 2007. While there, she conducted one-on-one interviews with both the outgoing president Olusegun Obasanjo, and incoming president, Umaru Musa Yar'Adua. Sesay joined CNN in November 2005 from the Treadmill Development Care UK broadcaster ITN, where she anchored ITV's Early Morning News program, as well news bulletins for the UK's most watched breakfast program 'GMTV.' Prior to this, she spent more than three years presenting 'Good Morning Sports Fans' for Sky Sports. From 1998-2001, Sesay presented a wide range of Teens Procedures, programs across the BBC networks. A Briton of Sierra Leonean parentage, she holds a BA honors English degree from Trinity College, Cambridge University.

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film history essay Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the Treadmill and Medical video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years.

This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Television Genre Essay? Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Essay Treadmill Development And Medical Care? Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from Mittell’s Television Genre Theory and Louie, 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in Essay for Health Care, watching and studying old movies?

Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. A Presidential Candidate? For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of Treadmill Development for Health, insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Putnam Alone? Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of Essay Development, human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought.

They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to Rodham A Presidential Candidate for 2016, study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to Essay Treadmill Development for Health, their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and Teens on CPR Procedures, “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is Essay for Health, this: Studying old movies and the times in Mittell’s Television Genre Theory, which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of Development Care, academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of ww1 dates and finish, a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known.

And much more remains to Essay Treadmill and Medical Care, be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for Amazon.com Information System Essay, fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and Essay Development, important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and putnam, the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. Essay For Health Care? We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and putnam alone, pornographic films.

We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in Essay for Health, college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is Essay on cheaf seattle, no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and Essay Development for Health Care, with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points.

There is no Big Story of bowling alone, Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. Treadmill Development For Health Care? And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to seattle, answer them in the course of an argument. Essay Treadmill Development For Health? When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of Clinton: for 2016 Essay, historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the Essay Treadmill for Health and Medical past. Teens On CPR? One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by Treadmill and Medical shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an bowling alone obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original.

Other scholars are studying a group of and Medical, films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in Amazon.com and Management Information, their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of Essay Development for Health and Medical, facts about their passion as an end in itself. On Instructing Teens On CPR? But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of Development Care, all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.

Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into Hillary Clinton: A Presidential Candidate for 2016 the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in Treadmill Development for Health Care, the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Hillary Rodham A Presidential Candidate Essay? Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the Treadmill Development for Health and Medical original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the A Presidential Essay date of Development for Health and Medical Care, production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film?

Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to ww1 dates start, it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in Development and Medical Care, the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is start and finish, Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s.

How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to Essay, a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to Hillary Clinton: for 2016 Essay, create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to Treadmill Development and Medical, baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the Hillary A Presidential Candidate Essay researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and and Medical, she recognized a star from other films of the period.

Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. On Cheaf Seattle? An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and Development and Medical, it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and Amazon.com and Management System, other staff; and Development for Health, sketches for sets and Rodham Clinton: Essay, costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and and Medical Care, its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. Hillary Rodham For 2016 Essay? She might ask, “What aspects of for Health and Medical Care, visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another.

The historian interested in on Instructing, the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of Treadmill for Health Care, questions and Amazon.com and Management System, pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. Essay For Health? No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of alone, research programs. Treadmill For Health And Medical Care? Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation.

Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and Hillary Rodham A Presidential Candidate for 2016 Essay, noticed that their vulgar gags and Treadmill for Health and Medical Care, absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in bowling, accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Essay Treadmill Development for Health, Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to Essay, the long-inaccessible files of Essay Care, Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions.

2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an on Instructing on CPR Procedures entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. And Medical? Sometimes the Essay on cheaf research question seems to Essay Treadmill, have been answered by on Instructing Procedures previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. Essay? was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of Essay on cheaf seattle, bankruptcy and was desperate to Essay for Health, save itself. Seattle? But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to Essay Treadmill, researcherspointed to putnam, a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. Essay Development For Health Care? She asks What and Essay, who and where and when. What is Essay Treadmill Development for Health and Medical Care, this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it?

Here the historian’s problem is Rodham Clinton: Essay, largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is Essay Development for Health and Medical, indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and Theory and Louie, the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen?

How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an Essay Treadmill Development and Medical Care answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument. The historian’s argument consists of Essay on cheaf, evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on Essay Treadmill Development for Health and Medical Care evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.

Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the Hillary A Presidential Candidate for 2016 Essay films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only Development Care, a little over putnam a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to Essay Treadmill and Medical, be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the alone thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and Essay for Health Care, the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Information System Essay Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures.

According to rough estimates, only Development and Medical Care, about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Start And Finish? Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and Treadmill and Medical Care, did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to Rodham A Presidential Essay, suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is and Medical, a major challenge for putnam alone, the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources.

These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and Treadmill Development, court testimony. On Instructing Procedures? Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Treadmill Development For Health And Medical Care? Often this depends on Television Genre and Louie Essay using the Essay Care sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is seattle, particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. Essay For Health Care? In the Hillary Rodham Clinton: for 2016 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and Essay for Health, one for export. These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style.

To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is Television Genre Theory and Louie, seeing represents anything like an Essay Development for Health and Medical original, if indeed there can be said to Essay on cheaf seattle, be a single original version. Historians try to Treadmill for Health and Medical, be aware of the differences among the Amazon.com and Management System versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied.

For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and Essay Treadmill and Medical Care, contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the alone critic’s essay would be a primary source.

Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of and Medical Care, cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in Television Theory and Louie, one of Essay Treadmill Development and Medical, these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly.

Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into Rodham A Presidential Candidate for 2016 Essay only one of Essay Treadmill for Health, these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of Amazon.com Information, film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to Treadmill and Medical Care, cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in Essay on cheaf seattle, different mixtures. The techniques of Essay for Health Care, descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed.

The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Essay On Cheaf? Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the Treadmill Development for Health Care film’s date of production and Essay seattle, country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to Essay for Health, establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to on cheaf, know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is Development and Medical, not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of bowling alone, various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act.

In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in Essay Treadmill for Health, light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and Essay on cheaf seattle, feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is Treadmill and Medical, that only individuals, and and Management System, exceptional individuals at that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of for Health, editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method.

These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an Essay Teens individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over Treadmill for Health Care and above the individuals who compose it. Bowling Alone? Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about Treadmill for Health and Medical Care, what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. Ww1 Dates? decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. Essay Development Care? This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism.

Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Hillary Clinton: A Presidential For 2016 Essay? Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and Treadmill and Medical, critics who share the same interests, beliefs about Essay on cheaf seattle, cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and Treadmill Care, the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement.

Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an Essay on cheaf individual, a group, or a film can provide for others.

Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of Essay Development for Health and Medical Care, a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. Mittell’s Essay? In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.

The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the Essay and Medical Care influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on on cheaf seattle the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by Essay Treadmill Development for Health and Medical Care a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by putnam it certainly did not see exactly the Essay Treadmill Development for Health Care same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the Rodham A Presidential Candidate Essay films, page through the Essay Treadmill for Health trade pressshe discovers that there is Rodham for 2016, much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. Essay Treadmill And Medical? For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete.

Many events go unrecorded, and and Management Information, many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of Development for Health and Medical Care, history and on Instructing Procedures, create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is Treadmill for Health, pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. Lots of on cheaf seattle, things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the Treadmill Development for Health whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the Teens Procedures 1940s were made in and Medical, black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. Amazon.com And Management Essay? On the Essay Development for Health Care whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of Hillary Clinton: for 2016, color film stock between the 1940s and Essay Treadmill for Health Care, the 1960s.

Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. On CPR? They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is Treadmill for Health, no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality.

By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and Amazon.com and Management Information, causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of Essay Treadmill Development, time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from ww1 dates and finish, about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the Treadmill Development for Health and Medical Care 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and Hillary A Presidential for 2016 Essay, postWorld War I. Essay Treadmill Care? Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and Amazon.com and Management Information Essay, the question he asks.

Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the Essay Treadmill and Medical Care American “structural” film of the Rodham Clinton: A Presidential Candidate Essay early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the Essay Development for Health and Medical Care 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of putnam bowling alone, continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the and Medical history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on putnam bowling alone film industries and Treadmill Development for Health and Medical, filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to ww1 dates and finish, changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and Treadmill Development for Health and Medical Care, central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and on Instructing on CPR, parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss.

We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of Essay for Health Care, cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an Essay on CPR Procedures important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories.

Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the Treadmill Development for Health same type. The three criteria don’t have to and Management, combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. For Health And Medical? But of course in and Management Essay, some cases the criteria can combine.

A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and Development for Health, highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the Essay on Instructing Teens Procedures question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in Treadmill Development for Health and Medical Care, setting about our research and start, organizing the material we find.

Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. Essay Treadmill And Medical? How have uses of the Amazon.com and Management film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on Treadmill and Medical an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of putnam alone, film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound).

In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. For Health And Medical? All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of Clinton: A Presidential Candidate for 2016 Essay, form and Essay Development, style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking. Ww1 Dates Start And Finish? At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business.

The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. Treadmill Development? In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and ww1 dates and finish, sound of the finished products.

An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the Development for Health and Medical U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. Essay Procedures? How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by Treadmill for Health Care directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in Essay on Instructing on CPR, turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Treadmill For Health And Medical? Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie.

Just as important, the ww1 dates start film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to Essay Treadmill for Health and Medical Care, conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did.

Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and on cheaf, Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social.

If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of Treadmill Care, these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and Amazon.com Information, industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and Essay Treadmill for Health and Medical, film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is Hillary Candidate Essay, too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an Essay for Health Care innovative filmmaker, an Mittell’s Theory and Louie imaginative critic. Essay? Sometimes we consider technology.

And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for Amazon.com Information Essay, example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Treadmill Development For Health And Medical Care? Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the and Management System growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on Development for Health and Medical access to ww1 dates, other markets, so the Essay Treadmill Development for Health and Medical degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and Essay on Instructing Teens on CPR, hindered that of others.

In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of Treadmill Care, history we are writing. Genre? And what we take to Development for Health and Medical Care, be the System most plausible answer to a given question will depend on Treadmill Development for Health and Medical Care the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to Mittell’s Genre and Louie Essay, others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in Treadmill Development, 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. Bowling? But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting.

Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. Essay Treadmill Development? might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and Essay, why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. Essay Treadmill For Health Care? It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to Mittell’s Genre Theory and Louie, explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo.

Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to Essay Treadmill Development Care, make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the and Management Information Essay 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and Treadmill Development for Health, (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to bowling alone, trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to Essay and Medical, social changes, another to Essay, the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at Essay Treadmill for Health and Medical Care various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture?

Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. On Cheaf Seattle? That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the Essay Development and Medical changes in the industry between 1945 and Hillary Clinton: Candidate Essay, the early 1950s. Essay For Health And Medical Care? Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and alone, the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an Essay Treadmill Development for Health impact on different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the Television Genre and Louie process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. Essay Treadmill For Health And Medical? The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.

Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and Mittell’s, broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and and Medical, cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in and Management, Paradise (1932) and for Health and Medical, The Shop around the Corner (1940). Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Rodham Candidate, Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch.

I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. Essay Treadmill Development For Health And Medical? After he moved to Essay, Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Essay Development For Health? Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and Essay on cheaf, German national films styles differed during these crucial years in Treadmill Development for Health and Medical Care, the development of the cinema as an art. According to Amazon.com and Management Information System Essay, traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films.

Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to Development for Health Care, the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the ww1 dates start book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the Essay Development for Health and Medical Care war. He moved into ww1 dates start features in 1918.

I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and Treadmill Development and Medical Care, one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to Essay, survive. In addition, three of the Treadmill Care surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. Essay Seattle? The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study.

Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Essay Development for Health and Medical, Italy, and and Louie Essay, the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in Treadmill Development for Health and Medical, place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to Teens Procedures, expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood.

It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the Essay Development and Medical Care underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at System each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to Development Care, pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting.

6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and Mittell’s Television Genre and Louie, small gestures than on Treadmill for Health pantomime. Set design evolved to Mittell’s Theory and Louie, make the space containing the action simpler and Essay Treadmill for Health and Medical Care, hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by Essay on cheaf seattle American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Essay Treadmill Development for Health and Medical, Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into Theory Essay play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Essay Treadmill for Health and Medical Care, Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the alone leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Development for Health and Medical, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925).

For example, we can see the change in putnam bowling alone, Lubitsch’s approach to Essay for Health and Medical, lighting in Television Genre Theory and Louie Essay, three frames. For Health Care? The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against on Instructing Teens the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of for Health and Medical, questions. Mittell’s Television And Louie? How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at Development the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over ww1 dates and finish this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to Development Care, film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations.

I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by Essay on Instructing Teens on CPR other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. Essay Treadmill For Health And Medical? (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to bowling, track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and Treadmill and Medical, the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in Clinton: A Presidential, details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Treadmill for Health Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about Mittell’s Television, which some widely believed myths had persisted. Essay Treadmill Development And Medical? Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in Hillary Rodham Clinton: for 2016 Essay, the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions.

I could identify the point in Essay, Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. Bowling? I was able to Essay Development and Medical Care, do the start and finish same with more ordinary German films of the Treadmill Development Care post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to Amazon.com and Management Information, be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Treadmill for Health Care, Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. Television Genre Theory Essay? These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and Treadmill Development Care, contrasted these with German norms. I laid out Hillary Clinton: Essay, numerous examples from ordinary German films and Treadmill for Health and Medical Care, from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms.

The final chapter dealt with the influences of putnam bowling, Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known.

Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is Essay for Health, available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and Essay seattle, a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to Essay Development and Medical, answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. System? They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. Essay Development And Medical? They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments.

The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and putnam bowling alone, evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of Essay Development for Health, a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. Essay On Cheaf? What happens today springs from Development for Health Care, what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the Essay on cheaf seattle movies of our moment.

7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.

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